13 Facts About Warsaw Ghetto


Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Nazi ghettos during World War II and the Holocaust.

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Warsaw Ghetto was an attritionist best known for orchestrating an "artificial famine" in January 1941.

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Warsaw Ghetto was relieved of his duties by Frank himself in March 1941 and replaced by Kommissar Heinz Auerswald, a "productionist" who served until November 1942.

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Czerniakow's first draft of October, 1939; for organizing the Warsaw Ghetto Judenrat, was just a rehash of conventional kehilla departments: chancellery, welfare, rabbinate, education, cemetery, tax department, accounting, vital statistics.

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Council of Elders was supported internally by the Jewish Ghetto Police, formed at the end of September 1940 with 3,000 men, instrumental in enforcing law and order as well as carrying out German ad hoc regulations, especially after 1941, when the number of refugees and expellees in Warsaw reached 150,000 or nearly one third of the entire Jewish population of the capital.

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An average daily food ration in 1941 for Jews in Warsaw Ghetto was limited to 184 calories, compared to 699 calories allowed for gentile Poles and 2,613 calories for the Germans.

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Rabbi Alexander Friedman, secretary-general of Agudath Israel of Poland, was one of the Torah leaders in the Warsaw Ghetto; he organized an underground network of religious schools, including "a Yesodei HaTorah school for boys, a Bais Yaakov school for girls, a school for elementary Jewish instruction, and three institutions for advanced Jewish studies".

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Warsaw Ghetto's Jewish labour exploitation was a source of envy for other ghetto inmates living in fear of deportations.

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Warsaw Ghetto was replaced by Marek Lichtenbaum, tasked with managing roundups with the aid of Jewish Ghetto Police.

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About 254,000 Warsaw Ghetto inmates were sent to Treblinka during the Grossaktion Warschau, and murdered there between Tisha B'Av and Yom Kippur of 1942.

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Warsaw Ghetto was offered a chance to escape by Polish friends and admirers, but he chose instead to share the fate of his life's work.

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Warsaw Ghetto was relieved of duty by Heinrich Himmler on April 17,1943 and court-martialed.

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Warsaw Ghetto was almost entirely leveled during the Uprising; however, a number of buildings and streets survived, mostly in the "small ghetto" area, which had been included into the Aryan part of the city in August 1942 and was not involved in the fighting.

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