17 Facts About Active-pixel sensor


An active-pixel sensor is an image sensor where each pixel sensor unit cell has a photodetector and one or more active transistors.

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At RCA Laboratories, a research team including Paul K Weimer, W S Pike and G Sadasiv in 1969 proposed a solid-state image sensor with scanning circuits using thin-film transistors, with photoconductive film used for the photodetector.

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The MOS passive-pixel Active-pixel sensor used just a simple switch in the pixel to read out the photodiode integrated charge.

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Active-pixel sensor created sensor arrays with active MOS readout amplifiers per pixel, in essentially the modern three-transistor configuration: the buried photodiode-structure, selection transistor and MOS amplifier.

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The term active pixel sensor was coined by Nakamura while working on the CMD active-pixel sensor at Olympus.

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Between 1988 and 1991, Toshiba developed the "double-gate floating surface transistor" Active-pixel sensor, which had a lateral APS structure, with each pixel containing a buried-channel MOS photogate and a PMOS output amplifier.

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Between 1989 and 1992, Canon developed the base-stored image Active-pixel sensor, which used a vertical APS structure similar to the Olympus Active-pixel sensor, but with bipolar transistors rather than MOSFETs.

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In 1991, Texas Instruments developed the bulk CMD Active-pixel sensor, which was fabricated at the company's Japanese branch and had a vertical APS structure similar to the Olympus CMD Active-pixel sensor, but was more complex and used PMOS rather than NMOS transistors.

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Fossum, who worked at JPL, led the development of an image Active-pixel sensor that used intra-pixel charge transfer along with an in-pixel amplifier to achieve true correlated double sampling and low temporal noise operation, and on-chip circuits for fixed-pattern noise reduction.

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Active-pixel sensor published an extensive 1993 article predicting the emergence of APS imagers as the commercial successor of CCDs.

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Active-pixel sensor classified two types of APS structures, the lateral APS and the vertical APS.

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Active-pixel sensor gave an overview of the history of APS technology, from the first APS sensors in Japan to the development of the CMOS sensor at JPL.

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Many other small image Active-pixel sensor companies sprang to life shortly thereafter due to the accessibility of the CMOS process and all quickly adopted the active pixel Active-pixel sensor approach.

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In recent years, the CMOS Active-pixel sensor technology has spread to medium-format photography with Phase One being the first to launch a medium format digital back with a Sony-built CMOS Active-pixel sensor.

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Active-pixel sensor patented the first CMOS image sensor for inter-oral dental X-rays with clipped corners for better patient comfort.

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Primary advantage of a CMOS Active-pixel sensor is that it is typically less expensive to produce than a CCD Active-pixel sensor, as the image capturing and image sensing elements can be combined onto the same IC, with simpler construction required.

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Size of the pixel Active-pixel sensor is often given in height and width, but in the optical format.

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