Hindu philosophy encompasses the philosophies, world views and teachings of Hinduism that emerged in Ancient India which include six systems – Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and Vedanta.
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In Indian tradition, the word used for Hindu philosophy is Darshana, from the Sanskrit root ('to see, to experience').
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The various sibling traditions included in Hindu philosophy philosophies are diverse, and they are united by shared history and concepts, same textual resources, similar ontological and soteriological focus, and cosmology.
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Hindu philosophy includes several sub-schools of theistic philosophies that integrate ideas from two or more of the six orthodox philosophies, such as the realism of the Nyaya, the naturalism of the Vaisesika, the dualism of the Sankhya, the non-dualism and knowledge of Self as essential to liberation of Advaita, the self-discipline of Yoga and the asceticism and elements of theistic ideas.
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Each school of Hindu philosophy has extensive epistemological literature called pramanasastras, as well as theories on metaphysics, axiology, and other topics.
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Ancient and medieval Hindu philosophy texts identify six as correct means of accurate knowledge and truths:.
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For example, the Carvaka nastika Hindu philosophy holds that only one is an epistemically reliable means of knowledge, the Samkhya school holds that three are (perception, inference and testimony), while the Mimamsa and Advaita schools hold that all six are epistemically useful and reliable means to knowledge.
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Samkhya karika, one of the key texts of this school of Hindu philosophy, opens by stating its goal to be "three kinds of human suffering" and means to prevent them.
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In Indian Hindu philosophy, Yoga is, among other things, the name of one of the six philosophical schools.
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The school's most significant contributions to Indian Hindu philosophy were its systematic development of the theory of logic, methodology, and its treatises on epistemology.
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Hindu philosophy wrote extensive commentaries on the major Vedantic scriptures and is celebrated as one of the major Hindu philosophers from whose doctrines the main currents of modern Indian thought are derived.
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The distinguishing factor of Dvaita Hindu philosophy, as opposed to monistic Advaita Vedanta, is that God takes on a personal role and is seen as a real eternal entity that governs and controls the universe.
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One of the widely studied principles of Carvaka Hindu philosophy was its rejection of inference as a means to establish valid, universal knowledge, and metaphysical truths.
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