47 Facts About Indonesian language


Term "Indonesian language" is primarily associated with the national standard dialect.

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Standard Indonesian is confined mostly to formal situations, existing in a diglossic relationship with vernacular Malay varieties, which are commonly used for daily communication, coexisting with the aforementioned regional languages.

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Indonesian name for the language is occasionally found in English and other languages.

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Standard Indonesian is a standard language of "Riau Malay", which despite its common name is not based on the vernacular Malay dialects of the Riau Islands, but rather represents a form of Classical Malay as used in the 19th and early 20th centuries in the Riau-Lingga Sultanate.

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Since the 7th century, the Old Malay language has been used in Nusantara (Indonesian archipelago), evidenced by Srivijaya inscriptions and by other inscriptions from coastal areas of the archipelago, such as Sojomerto inscription.

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Trade contacts carried on by various ethnic peoples at the time were the main vehicle for spreading the Old Malay Indonesian language, which was the main communications medium among the traders.

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Ultimately, the Old Malay Indonesian language became a lingua franca and was spoken widely by most people in the archipelago.

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High Malay was the official Indonesian language used in the court of the Johor Sultanate and continued by the Dutch-administered territory of Riau-Lingga, while Low Malay was commonly used in marketplaces and ports of the archipelago.

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Nevertheless, it did have a significant influence on the development of Malay in the colony: during the colonial era, the language that would be standardized as Indonesian absorbed a large amount of Dutch vocabulary in the form of loanwords.

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However, the rapid disappearance of Dutch was a very unusual case compared with other colonized countries, where the colonial Indonesian language generally has continued to function as the Indonesian language of politics, bureaucracy, education, technology, and other fields of importance for a significant time after independence.

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In fact, they consciously prevented the language from being spread by refusing to provide education, especially in Dutch, to the native Indonesians so they would not come to see themselves as equals.

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Three years later, the Indonesians themselves formally abolished the language and established bahasa Indonesia as the national language of the new nation.

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Indonesian language believed passionately in the need to develop Indonesian so that it could take its place as a fully adequate national language, able to replace Dutch as a means of entry into modern international culture.

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For him, Indonesian language was a new concept; a new beginning was needed and he looked to Western civilisation, with its dynamic society of individuals freed from traditional fetters, as his inspiration.

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The Japanese agreed to the establishment of the Komisi Bahasa in October 1942, formally headed by three Japanese but with a number of prominent Indonesian intellectuals playing the major part in its activities.

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In 1945, Indonesian language was already in widespread use; in fact, it had been for roughly a thousand years.

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The combination of these factors meant that the Indonesian language was already known to some degree by most of the population, and it could be more easily adopted as the national Indonesian language than perhaps any other.

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Today, Indonesian continues to function as the language of national identity as the Congress of Indonesian Youth envisioned, and serves as the language of education, literacy, modernization, and social mobility.

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Use of the national Indonesian language is abundant in the media, government bodies, schools, universities, workplaces, among members of the upper-class or nobility and in formal situations, despite the 2010 census showing only 19.

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Unlike the relatively uniform standard variety, Vernacular Indonesian exhibits a high degree of geographical variation, though Colloquial Jakartan Indonesian functions as the de facto norm of informal language and is a popular source of influence throughout the archipelago.

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However, vernacular varieties spoken in Indonesia and Malaysia share limited intelligibility, which is evidenced by the fact that Malaysians have difficulties understanding Indonesian language sinetron aired on Malaysia TV stations, and vice versa.

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While, Malay as the source of Indonesian language is mother tongue of ethnic Malay who lives along east coast of Sumatra, in Riau Archipelago, south and west coast of Kalimantan.

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Indonesian language receives many English words as a result of globalization and modernization, especially since the 1990s, as far as the Internet's emergence and development until the present day.

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Some Indonesian language words correspond to Malay loanwords in English, among them the common words orangutan, gong, bamboo, rattan, sarong, and the less common words such as paddy, sago and kapok, all of which were inherited in Indonesian language from Malay but borrowed from Malay in English.

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Indonesian language is neither a pidgin nor a creole since its characteristics do not meet any of the criteria for either.

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Indonesian language has been taught in Australian schools and universities since the 1950s.

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In East Timor, which was occupied by Indonesia between 1975 and 1999, Indonesian is recognized by the constitution as one of the two working languages, alongside the official languages of Tetum and Portuguese.

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Indonesian language functions as a symbol of national identity and pride, and is a lingua franca among the diverse ethnic groups in Indonesia.

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Since its conception in 1928 and its official recognition in the 1945 Constitution, the Indonesian language has been loaded with a nationalist political agenda to unify Indonesia.

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Malaysians tend to assert that Malaysian and Indonesian are merely different normative varieties of the same language, while Indonesians tend to treat them as separate, albeit closely related, languages.

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Indonesian language has distinguished ?e? [] and ?e? [] since 2015, while Standard Malay has rendered both of them as ?e?.

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Poedjosoedarmo argued the split of the front mid vowels in Indonesian language is due to Javanese influence which exhibits a difference between ?i? [], ?e? [] and e [].

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Javanese words adopted into Indonesian language have greatly increased the frequency of Indonesian language ?e? and ?o?.

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Consonants in Indonesian is influenced by other important language in Indonesian history.

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Indonesian language has light stress that falls on either the final or penultimate syllable, depending on regional variations as well as the presence of the schwa in a word.

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Nevertheless, acoustic measurements suggest that Indonesian language has more syllable-based rhythm than British English, even though doubts remain about whether the syllable is the appropriate unit for the study of Malay prosody.

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Indonesian language, while allowing for relatively flexible word orderings, does not mark for grammatical case, nor does it make use of grammatical gender.

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Indonesian language words are composed of a root or a root plus derivational affixes.

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Plural in Indonesian language serves just to explicitly mention the number of objects in sentence.

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Indonesian language alphabet is exactly the same as in ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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Indonesian language alphabet has a phonemic orthography; words are spelled the way they are pronounced, with few exceptions.

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List of loan words of Indonesian language published by the Badan Pengembangan Bahasa dan Perbukuan under the Ministry of Education and Culture:.

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The short story below consists of approximately 80 words in Indonesian language that are written using Sanskrit words alone, except for a few pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions and affixes.

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Especially since the late 12th century, Old Malay was heavily influenced by the Indonesian language and produced many great literary works such as Syair, Babad, Hikayat, and Suluk.

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For example, Indonesian has three words for "book", i e, (from Arabic) and (from Dutch ); however, each has a slightly different meaning.

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Since the time of the independence of Indonesia, Indonesian language has seen a surge of neologisms which are formed as acronyms or blend words.

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Some of classic Indonesian language stories include Sitti Nurbaya by Marah Rusli, Azab dan Sengsara by Merari Siregar, and Sengsara Membawa Nikmat by Tulis Sutan Sati.

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