59 Facts About LSD


LSD is capable of causing mystical experiences and ego dissolution.

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LSD is both the prototypical psychedelic and one of the "classical" psychedelics, being the psychedelics with the greatest scientific and cultural significance.

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LSD is typically either swallowed or held under the tongue.

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LSD is considered to be non-addictive with low potential for abuse.

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LSD is active in small amounts relative to other psychoactive compounds with doses measured in micrograms.

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The effects of LSD are thought to stem primarily from it being an agonist at the 5-HT2A receptor, and while exactly how LSD exerts its effects by agonism at this receptor is still not fully known, corresponding increased glutamatergic neurotransmission and reduced default mode network activity are thought to be key mechanisms of action.

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In pure form, LSD is clear or white in color, has no smell, and is crystalline.

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LSD was first synthesized by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann in 1938 from lysergic acid, a chemical derived from the hydrolysis of ergotamine, an alkaloid found in ergot, a fungus that infects grain.

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LSD was the 25th of various lysergamides Hofmann synthesized from lysergic acid while trying to develop a new analeptic, hence the alternate name LSD-25.

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LSD was subject to exceptional interest within the field of psychiatry in the 1950s and early 1960s, with Sandoz distributing LSD to researchers under the trademark name Delysid in an attempt to find a marketable use for it.

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LSD-assisted psychotherapy was used in the 1950s and early 1960s by psychiatrists such as Humphry Osmond, who pioneered the application of LSD to the treatment of alcoholism, with promising results.

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In contrast to schizophrenia, LSD induces transcendental experiences with lasting psychological benefit.

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LSD was one of several psychoactive substances evaluated by the U S Army Chemical Corps as possible non-lethal incapacitants in the Edgewood Arsenal human experiments.

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LSD is commonly used as a recreational drug in the company of friends, in large crowds, or by oneself.

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Stanislav Grof has written that religious and mystical experiences observed during LSD sessions appear to be phenomenologically indistinguishable from similar descriptions in the sacred scriptures of the great religions of the world and the texts of ancient civilizations.

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LSD has been studied in depression, anxiety, and drug dependence, with positive preliminary results.

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LSD is exceptionally potent, with as little as 20 µg capable of producing a noticeable effect.

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The most significant adverse effect of LSD was impairment of mental functioning while intoxicated.

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LSD is capable of exacerbating mental illnesses and precipitating the early onset of schizophrenia in vulnerable individuals.

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NIH states that LSD is addictive, while most other sources state it is not.

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The psychedelic effects of LSD are attributed to cross-activation of 5-HT2A receptor heteromers.

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Exactly how LSD produces its effects is unknown, but it is thought that it works by increasing glutamate release in the cerebral cortex and therefore excitation in this area, specifically in layers IV and V LSD, like many other drugs of recreational use, has been shown to activate DARPP-32-related pathways.

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LSD has been shown to have low affinity for H1 receptors, displaying antihistamine effects.

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LSD is a biased agonist that induces a conformation in serotonin receptors that preferentially recruits ß-arrestin over activating G proteins.

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LSD has an exceptionally long residence time when bound to serotonin receptors lasting hours, consistent with the long lasting effects of LSD despite its relatively rapid clearance.

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Pharmacokinetics of LSD were not properly determined until 2015, which is not surprising for a drug with the kind of low-µg potency that LSD possesses.

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Concentrations of LSD decreased following first-order kinetics with a half-life of 3.

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O-H-LSD is formed by cytochrome P450 enzymes, although the specific enzymes involved are unknown, and it does not appear to be known whether O-H-LSD is pharmacologically active or not.

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LSD is a chiral compound with two stereocenters at the carbon atoms C-5 and C-8, so that theoretically four different optical isomers of LSD could exist.

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Non-psychoactive iso-LSD which has formed during the synthesis can be separated by chromatography and can be isomerized to LSD.

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Pure salts of LSD are triboluminescent, emitting small flashes of white light when shaken in the dark.

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LSD is strongly fluorescent and will glow bluish-white under UV light.

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Dosages of LSD are measured in micrograms, or millionths of a gram.

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LSD has two labile protons at the tertiary stereogenic C5 and C8 positions, rendering these centers prone to epimerisation.

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LSD has enamine-type reactivity because of the electron-donating effects of the indole ring.

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Urine fortified with LSD and stored in amber glass or nontransparent polyethylene containers showed no change in concentration under any light conditions.

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LSD can be detected using an Ehrlich's reagent and a Hofmann's reagent.

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LSD was first synthesized on November 16, 1938 by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann at the Sandoz Laboratories in Basel, Switzerland as part of a large research program searching for medically useful ergot alkaloid derivatives.

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The first intentional ingestion of LSD occurred on April 19, 1943, when Hofmann ingested 250 µg of LSD.

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LSD said this would be a threshold dose based on the dosages of other ergot alkaloids.

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In 1963, the Sandoz patents on LSD expired and the Czech company Spofa began to produce the substance.

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From 1964, the Merry Pranksters, a loose group that developed around novelist Ken Kesey, sponsored the Acid Tests, a series of events primarily staged in or near San Francisco, involving the taking of LSD, accompanied by light shows, film projection and discordant, improvised music known as the psychedelic symphony.

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LSD had a strong influence on the Grateful Dead and the culture of "Deadheads.

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Songs allegedly referring to LSD include John Prine's "Illegal Smile" and the Beatles' song "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds, " although the authors of the latter song repeatedly denied this claim.

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In modern times, LSD has had a prominent influence on artists such as Keith Haring, electronic dance music, and the jam band Phish.

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LSD is a Schedule 9 prohibited substance in Australia under the Poisons Standard.

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In Canada, LSD is a controlled substance under Schedule III of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act.

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LSD is Schedule I in the United States, according to the Controlled Substances Act of 1970.

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Lysergic acid and lysergic acid amide, LSD precursors, are both classified in Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act.

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Personal possession of small amounts of drugs including LSD was decriminalized in the U S state of Oregon on February 1, 2021.

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An active dose of LSD is very minute, allowing a large number of doses to be synthesized from a comparatively small amount of raw material.

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Manufacturing LSD requires laboratory equipment and experience in the field of organic chemistry.

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LSD is produced in crystalline form and is then mixed with excipients or redissolved for production in ingestible forms.

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LSD has been sold under a wide variety of often short-lived and regionally restricted street names including Acid, Trips, Uncle Sid, Blotter, Lucy, Alice and doses, as well as names that reflect the designs on the sheets of blotter paper.

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Since 2005, law enforcement in the United States and elsewhere has seized several chemicals and combinations of chemicals in blotter paper which were sold as LSD mimics, including DOB, a mixture of DOC and DOI, 25I-NBOMe, and a mixture of DOC and DOB.

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Many street users of LSD are often under the impression that blotter paper which is actively hallucinogenic can only be LSD because that is the only chemical with low enough doses to fit on a small square of blotter paper.

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In 2001 the United States Drug Enforcement Administration stated that LSD "produces no aphrodisiac effects, does not increase creativity, has no lasting positive effect in treating alcoholics or criminals, does not produce a "model psychosis", and does not generate immediate personality change.

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LSD has been used as a treatment for cluster headaches with positive results in some small studies.

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LSD has been shown to increase markers of neuroplasticity in human brain organoids and improve memory performance in human subjects.

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