27 Facts About Northern Wei


Wei, known in historiography as the Northern Wei, Tuoba Wei, Yuan Wei and Later Wei, was an imperial dynasty of China founded by the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei.

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The Northern Wei were referred to as "Plaited Barbarians" by writers of the Southern dynasties, who considered themselves the true upholders of Chinese culture.

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Northern Wei sent his generals to attack Puban and Shancheng, while he himself laid siege to the Hu Xia's heavily fortified capital of Tongwancheng.

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In fall 430, while Helian Ding was engaging the Western Qin dynasty, the Northern Wei made a surprise attack on the new Hu Xia capital Pingliang and conquered the state.

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Northern Wei chose to withdraw at the start of winter and would launch yearly attacks against the Northern Yan to weaken it gradually over the next few years.

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In 439, the Northern Wei launched a major attack on Northern Liang dynasty, capturing its capital Guzang .

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Northern Wei then usurped the Jin throne and created the Song dynasty.

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Northern Wei's plan is to seize three major cities south of the Yellow River: Luoyang, Hulao, and Huatai.

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Northern Wei troops were eventually forced to withdraw after food supplies ran out.

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Northern Wei forces stalled in their siege of Hulao, defended by the capable Liu Song general Mao Dezu, but were meanwhile able to capture Luoyang and Xuchang in spring 423, cutting off the path of any Liu Song relief force for Hulao.

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The Northern Wei lured the Liu Song to cross the Yellow River, and then flanked them, destroying the Eastern army.

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Northern Wei troops began to attack Shouyang but could not take the city.

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In fall 506, Wei Rui attacked the Northern Wei army stationed at Luokou for nearly a year without advancing.

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However, when Northern Wei army gathered, Xiao Hong Prince of Linchuan, the Liang commander and younger brother of Emperor Wu, escaped in fear, causing his army to collapse without a battle.

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In 524, while Northern Wei is plagued by agrarian rebellions to the north and west, Emperor Wu launched a number of attacks on Wei's southern territory.

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However, in summer 525, Emperor Wu's son Prince Xiao Zong, grew suspicions that he was actually the son of Southern Qi's emperor Xiao Baojuan, surrendered Pengcheng to Northern Wei, ending Liang's advances in the northeast, although in summer 526, Shouyang fell to Liang troops after Emperor Wu successfully reemployed the damming strategy.

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Northern Wei commissioned his general Chen Qingzhi with an army to escort Yuan Hao back to Northern Wei.

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In 530, Emperor Wu made another attempt to establish a vassal regime in Northern Wei by creating Yuan Yue the Prince of Wei, and commissioning Yuan Yue's uncle Fan Zun with an army to escort Yuan Yue back to Northern Wei.

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The Northern Wei dynasty had doubled the registered population to more than 5 million households since the reforms.

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Northern Wei introduced Han Chinese administrative methods and penal codes in the Northern Wei state, as well as creating a Taoist theocracy that lasted until 450.

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Northern Wei started to arrange for Han Chinese elites to marry daughters of the Xianbei Tuoba royal family in the 480s.

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One of Emperor Xiaowu of Northern Wei's sisters was married to Zhang Huan, a Han Chinese, according to the Book of Zhou .

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Northern Wei's name is given as Zhang Xin in the Book of Northern Qi and Northern Wei'story of the Northern Dynasties which mention his marriage to a Xianbei princess of Wei.

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The Celestial Masters of the north urged the persecution of Buddhists under the Taiwu Emperor in the Northern Wei, attacking Buddhism and the Buddha as wicked and as anti-stability and anti-family.

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Northern Wei dynasty was the most long-lived and most powerful of the northern dynasties prior to the reunification of China by the Sui dynasty.

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Northern Wei art came under influence of Indian and Central Asian traditions through the mean of trade routes.

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Also, when the Northern Wei defeated the Northern Liang in 439 CE, they captured a great number of Sogdian merchants from their capital Wuwei, and resettled them in their own capital at Datong, thereby fostering trade.

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