Pennines, known as the Pennine Chain or Pennine Hills, are a range of uplands running between three regions of Northern England: North West England on the west, and North East England and Yorkshire and the Humber on the east.
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The Pennines are an important water catchment area with numerous reservoirs in the head streams of the river valleys.
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Pennines found that the derivation from Bertram was widely believed and considered uncomfortable.
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Pennines start from the Tyne Gap in the north, separating the range from the Border Moors and Cheviot Hills across the Anglo-Scottish border, and continue southwards across the North Pennines to the Stainmore Gap where the range adjoins the Yorkshire Dales.
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The main range of the Pennines carries on southwards from the Aire Gap across the South Pennines, separated from the Forest of Bowland by the Ribble Valley, and includes the Rossendale Valley and West Pennine Moors in the west, before adjoining the northern Peak District approximately around the Tame Valley, Standedge and Holme Valley.
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The southern end of the Pennines is said to be in the High Peak of Derbyshire at Edale, the start of the Pennine Way but the range of hills continues south across the Peak District to the Trent Valley, encompassing northern and eastern Staffordshire, and southern Derbyshire.
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The Yorkshire Dales are characterised by valleys, moorlands and fells while the North Pennines consist of plateaus, moorlands, fells, edges and valleys, with most of the higher peaks in the west.
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Purpose of growing plants, the Pennines are in hardiness zones 7 and 8, as defined by the USDA.
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Pennines have been carved from a series of geological structures whose overall form is a broad anticline whose axis extends in a north–south direction.
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The North Pennines are coincident with the Alston Block and the Yorkshire Dales are coincident with the Askrigg Block.
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Pennines were an obstacle for Anglo-Saxon expansion westwards, although it appears the Anglo-Saxons travelled through the valleys.
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The Pennines were not a distinct political polity, but were divided between neighbouring counties in northeast and northwest England; a major part was in the West Riding of Yorkshire.
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Main economic activities in the Pennines include sheep farming, quarrying, finance and tourism.
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The South Pennines are predominantly industrial, with the main industries including textiles, quarrying and mining, while other economic activities within the South Pennines include tourism and farming.
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The main economic activities in the North Pennines include tourism, farming, timber and small-scale quarrying, due to the rural landscape.
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Gaps that allow west–east communication across the Pennines include the Tyne Gap between the Pennines and the Cheviots, through which the A69 road and Tyne Valley railway link Carlisle and Newcastle upon Tyne.
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Considerable areas of the Pennines are protected as UK national parks and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty .
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Flora in the higher Pennines is adapted to moorland and subarctic landscapes and climates.
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Large areas of heather moorland in the Pennines are managed for driven shooting of wild red grouse.
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