17 Facts About Roman army


Roman army was the armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom to the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, and its medieval continuation, the Eastern Roman Empire.

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Early Roman army was the armed forces of the Roman Kingdom and of the early Roman Republic.

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The commanding position of the Roman army was given to the consuls, "who were charged both singly and jointly to take care to preserve the Republic from danger".

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The bulk of the Roman army was made up of citizens, which could not choose the legion to which they were allocated.

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Komnenian Byzantine Roman army was named after the Komnenos dynasty, which ruled from 1081 to 1185.

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Palaiologan Byzantine Roman army was named after the Palaiologos dynasty, which ruled Byzantium from the recovery of Constantinople from the Crusaders until its fall to the Turks in 1453.

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Early Roman army was based on a compulsory levy from adult male citizens which was held at the start of each campaigning season, in those years that war was declared.

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The army's senior officers, including its commanders-in-chief, the Roman Consuls, were all elected annually at the People's Assembly.

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Late Roman army is the term used to denote the military forces of the Roman Empire from the accession of Emperor Diocletian in 284 until the Empire's definitive division into Eastern and Western halves in 395.

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The interpretation of this trend has fuelled an ongoing debate whether the Roman army adopted a defence-in-depth strategy or continued the same posture of "forward defence" as in the early Principate.

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At the beginning of the Komnenian period, the Byzantine Roman army was reduced to a shadow of its former self: during the 11th century, decades of peace and neglect had reduced the old thematic forces, and the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 had destroyed the professional tagmata, the core of the Byzantine Roman army.

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At Manzikert and later at Dyrrhachium, units tracing their lineage for centuries back to Late Roman army were wiped out, and the subsequent loss of Asia Minor deprived the Empire of its main recruiting ground.

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Byzantine Roman army's nadir was reached in 1091, when Alexios I could manage to field only 500 soldiers from the Empire's professional forces.

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In particular, Alexios I was often reduced to reacting to events rather than controlling them; the changes he made to the Byzantine Roman army were largely done out of immediate necessity and were pragmatic in nature.

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Alongside troops raised and paid for directly by the state the Komnenian Roman army included the armed followers of members of the wider imperial family and its extensive connections.

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Palaiologan Roman army refers to the military forces of the Byzantine Empire from the late 13th century to its final collapse in the mid 15th century, under the House of the Palaiologoi.

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Under the first Palaiologan emperor, Michael VIII, the Roman army's role took an increasingly offensive role whilst the naval forces of the Empire, weakened since the days of Andronikos I Komnenos, were boosted to include thousands of skilled sailors and some 80 ships.

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