51 Facts About Roman Republic


Roman Republic was the era of the classical Roman civilization, run through public representation of the Roman people.

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Roman institutions underwent considerable changes throughout the Republic to adapt to the difficulties it faced, such as the creation of promagistracies to rule its conquered provinces, or the composition of the senate.

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The Roman Republic nonetheless demonstrated extreme resilience and always managed to overcome its losses, however catastrophic.

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The Punic general Hannibal famously invaded Italy by crossing the Alps and inflicted on Rome two devastating defeats at Lake Trasimene and Cannae, but the Roman Republic recovered and won the war thanks to Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC.

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At home, the Roman Republic similarly experienced a long streak of social and political crises, which ended in several violent civil wars.

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Later, the vast conquests of the Roman Republic disrupted its society, as the immense influx of slaves they brought enriched the aristocracy, but ruined the peasantry and urban workers.

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Marius, then Sulla (between 82 and 78 BC) dominated in turn the Roman Republic; both used extraordinary powers to purge their opponents.

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Roman Republic thereafter was replaced as co-consul by Publius Valerius Publicola.

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In 282, several Roman warships entered the harbour of Tarentum, breaking a treaty between the Republic and the Greek city, which forbade the gulf to Roman naval ships.

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The Roman Republic embassy sent to investigate the affair was insulted and war was promptly declared.

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Roman Republic escaped the Italian deadlock by answering a call for help from Syracuse, which tyrant Thoenon was desperately fighting an invasion from Carthage.

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Roman Republic returned to Italy, where his Samnite allies were on the verge of losing the war, despite their earlier victory at the Cranita hills.

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Roman Republic destroyed or captured 44 ships, and was the first Roman to receive a naval triumph, which included captive Carthaginians for the first time.

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Roman Republic captured the city of Aspis, repulsed Carthage's counter-attack at Adys, and took Tunis.

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Catulus and Hamilcar negotiated a treaty, which was somewhat lenient to Carthage, but the Roman Republic people rejected it and imposed harsher terms: Carthage had to pay 1000 talents immediately and 2200 over ten years, and evacuate Sicily.

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Roman Republic passed in Gaul, crossed the Rhone, then the Alps, possibly through the Col de Clapier.

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Roman Republic had hidden his troops in the hills surrounding the lake and attacked Flaminius when he was cornered on the shore.

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Roman Republic soon showed outstanding skills as a commander, winning a series of battles with ingenious tactics.

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Roman Republic took Utica and then won the Battle of the Great Plains, which prompted Carthage to recall Hannibal from Italy and open peace negotiations with Rome.

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Achaean League, seeing the direction of Roman Republic policy trending towards direct administration, met at Corinth and declared war "nominally against Sparta but in reality against Rome".

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Treaties had forbidden any war with Roman Republic allies; viewing defence against banditry as "war action", Rome decided to annihilate the city of Carthage.

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Roman Republic attempted to enact a law to limit the amount of land that any individual could own and establish a commission, on which Gracchus and members of his family would sit, distribute to public lands to poor rural plebs.

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Roman Republic's law was enacted and took effect, but, when Tiberius ostentatiously stood for re-election to the tribunate, he was deliberately murdered by a faction in the senate.

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Roman Republic stood for election to a third term in 121 but was defeated.

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Roman Republic's legislation survived; the Roman aristocracy disliked the Gracchi's agitation but acceded to their policies.

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Roman Republic was succeeded by two legitimate sons, Adherbal and Hiempsal, and an illegitimate son, Jugurtha.

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Roman Republic bribed several Roman commanders before and during the war.

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Roman Republic then instituted procedures to centralise the killing, creating lists of proscribed persons who could be killed for their property without punishment.

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Roman Republic celebrated a splendid triumph and then attempted to have his eastern settlements passed by the Senate; ratification, even with the backing of his a friendly consul, was not forthcoming due to the opposition of Lucullus, Crassus, and Cato the Younger.

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Roman Republic thus unveiled his alliance with Pompey and Crassus and moved his legislation before the people instead.

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In 51, some Roman Republic senators demanded that Caesar not be permitted to stand for consul unless he turned over control of his armies to the state, which would have left Caesar defenceless before his enemies.

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Roman Republic's enemies feared that he had ambitions to become an autocratic ruler.

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Constitutional history of the Roman Republic began with the revolution which overthrew the monarchy in 509 BC, and ended with constitutional reforms that transformed the Republic into what would effectively be the Roman Empire, in 27 BC.

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The constitution of the Roman Republic was a constantly-evolving, unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly through precedent, by which the government and its politics operated.

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The focus of the Roman Republic senate was usually directed towards foreign policy.

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Legal status of Roman Republic citizenship was limited and was a vital prerequisite to possessing many important legal rights such as the right to trial and appeal, to marry, to vote, to hold office, to enter binding contracts, and to special tax exemptions.

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Traditionally, the introduction of the phalanx formation into the Roman Republic army is ascribed to the city's penultimate king, Servius Tullius.

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Unlike earlier in the Roman Republic, legionaries were no longer fighting on a seasonal basis to protect their land.

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Brutus, co-founder of the Roman Republic, is supposed to have exercised the extreme form of this right when he executed his own sons for treachery.

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Roman Republic was created during a time of warfare, economic recession, food shortages, and plebeian debt.

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Roman Republic writers have little to say about large-scale stock-breeding, but make passing references to its profitability.

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The well-being of each Roman Republic household was thought to depend on daily cult to its Lares and Penates, ancestors, and the divine generative essence embodied within its pater familias.

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Roman Republic conquered the city in her name, brought her cult statue to Rome "with miraculous ease" and dedicated a temple to her on the Aventine Hill.

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Life in the Roman Republic revolved around the city of Rome, and its seven hills.

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Basic Roman Republic garment was the Greek-style tunic, worn knee-length and short-sleeved for men and boys, and ankle-length and long-sleeved for women and girls.

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Roman Republic conservatives deplored the apparent erosion of traditional, class-based dress distinctions, and an increasing Roman Republic appetite for luxurious fabrics and exotic "foreign" styles among all classes, including their own.

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Roman Republic gives instructions for kneading bread, making porridge, Placenta cake, brine, various wines, preserving lentils, planting asparagus, curing ham, and fattening geese and squab.

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Prominent Roman Republic alcoholics included Marcus Antonius, and Cicero's own son Marcus.

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Over time, Roman Republic architecture was modified as their urban requirements changed, and the civil engineering and building construction technology became developed and refined.

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The Roman Republic concrete has remained a riddle, and even after more than 2, 000 years some Roman Republic structures still stand magnificently.

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Roman Republic's oratory set new standards for centuries, and continues to influence modern speakers, while his philosophical works, which were, for the most part, Cicero's Latin adaptations of Greek Platonic and Epicurean works influenced many later philosophers.

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