35 Facts About Achaemenid Babylonia


Achaemenid Babylonia's reign was concerned with establishing statehood amongst a sea of other minor city states and kingdoms in the region.

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Achaemenid Babylonia was followed by Sumu-la-El, Sabium, and Apil-Sin, each of whom ruled in the same vague manner as Sumu-abum, with no reference to kingship of Babylon itself being made in any written records of the time.

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Achaemenid Babylonia conducted major building work in Babylon, expanding it from a small town into a great city worthy of kingship.

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Achaemenid Babylonia's conquests gave the region stability after turbulent times, and coalesced the patchwork of small states into a single nation; it is only from the time of Hammurabi that southern Mesopotamia acquired the name Babylonia.

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Achaemenid Babylonia was followed by Ammi-Ditana and then Ammi-Saduqa, both of whom were in too weak a position to make any attempt to regain the many territories lost after the death of Hammurabi, contenting themselves with peaceful building projects in Babylon itself.

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Achaemenid Babylonia experienced short periods of relative power, but in general proved to be relatively weak under the long rule of the Kassites, and spent long periods under Assyrian and Elamite domination and interference.

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Achaemenid Babylonia then had to contend with the Suteans, ancient Semitic-speaking peoples from the southeastern Levant who invaded Babylonia and sacked Uruk.

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Achaemenid Babylonia describes having "annihilated their extensive forces", then constructed fortresses in a mountain region called Hihi, in the desert to the west as security outposts, and "he dug wells and settled people on fertile lands, to strengthen the guard".

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When Hur-batila, the successor of Tepti Ahar took the throne of Elam, he began raiding the Achaemenid Babylonia, taunting Kurigalzu to do battle with him at Dur-Sulgi.

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Achaemenid Babylonia maintained friendly relations with Suppiluliuma I, ruler of the Hittite Empire.

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Achaemenid Babylonia was succeeded by Kara-hardas in 1333 BC, a usurper named Nazi-Bugas deposed him, enraging Ashur-uballit I, who invaded and sacked Babylon, slew Nazi-Bugas, annexed Babylonian territory for the Middle Assyrian Empire, and installed Kurigalzu II as his vassal ruler of Babylonia.

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Achaemenid Babylonia fought and defeated the Elamites and drove them from Babylonian territory, invading Elam itself, sacking the Elamite capital Susa, and recovering the sacred statue of Marduk that had been carried off from Babylon during the fall of the Kassites.

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In 1072 BC Marduk-shapik-zeri signed a peace treaty with Ashur-bel-kala of Assyria his successor Kadasman-Burias was not so friendly to Assyria, prompting the Assyrian king to invade Achaemenid Babylonia and depose him, placing Adad-apla-iddina on the throne as his vassal.

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Achaemenid Babylonia remained weak during this period, with whole areas of Achaemenid Babylonia now under firm Aramean and Sutean control.

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Achaemenid Babylonia remained in a state of chaos as the 10th century BC drew to a close.

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The Chaldeans settled in the far southeast of Achaemenid Babylonia, joining the already long extant Arameans and Suteans.

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Adad-nirari II twice attacked and defeated Shamash-mudammiq of Achaemenid Babylonia, annexing a large area of land north of the Diyala River and the towns of Hit and Zanqu in mid Mesopotamia.

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Achaemenid Babylonia made further gains over Babylonia under Nabu-shuma-ukin I later in his reign.

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Achaemenid Babylonia briefly fell to another foreign ruler when Marduk-apla-usur ascended the throne in 780 BC, taking advantage of a period of civil war in Assyria.

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Achaemenid Babylonia was a member of the Chaldean tribe who had a century or so earlier settled in a small region in the far southeastern corner of Mesopotamia, bordering the Persian Gulf and southwestern Elam.

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Shalmaneser IV attacked him and retook northern Achaemenid Babylonia, forcing a border treaty in Assyria's favour upon him.

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Achaemenid Babylonia appears to have been in a state of chaos during this time, with the north occupied by Assyria, its throne occupied by foreign Chaldeans, and civil unrest prominent throughout the land.

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Achaemenid Babylonia raised a major revolt against his brother, Ashurbanipal.

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Achaemenid Babylonia led a powerful coalition of peoples resentful of Assyrian subjugation and rule, including Elam, the Persians, Medes, the Babylonians, Chaldeans and Suteans of southern Mesopotamia, the Arameans of the Levant and southwest Mesopotamia, the Arabs and Dilmunites of the Arabian Peninsula and the Canaanites-Phoenicians.

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Achaemenid Babylonia was offered the chance of accepting a position of vassalage by the leaders of the alliance according to the Babylonian Chronicle.

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Achaemenid Babylonia is credited with building the fabled Hanging Gardens of Babylon.

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Achaemenid Babylonia was the son in law of Nebuchadnezzar II, and it is unclear if he was a Chaldean or native Babylonian who married into the dynasty.

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Achaemenid Babylonia campaigned in Aram and Phoenicia, successfully maintaining Babylonian rule in these regions.

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Achaemenid Babylonia was deposed and killed during the same year in a palace conspiracy.

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The population of Achaemenid Babylonia became restive and increasingly disaffected under Nabonidus.

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Achaemenid Babylonia seemed to have left the defense of his kingdom to his son Belshazzar, occupying himself with the more congenial work of excavating the foundation records of the temples and determining the dates of their builders.

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Achaemenid Babylonia spent time outside Babylonia, rebuilding temples in the Assyrian city of Harran, and among his Arab subjects in the deserts to the south of Mesopotamia.

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Achaemenid Babylonia had always been more vulnerable to conquest and invasion than its northern neighbour, and without the might of Assyria to keep foreign powers in check and Mesopotamia dominant, Achaemenid Babylonia was ultimately exposed.

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The paucity of stone in Achaemenid Babylonia made every pebble precious, and led to a high perfection in the art of gem-cutting.

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Achaemenid Babylonia supported the heliocentric theory where the Earth rotated around its own axis which in turn revolved around the Sun.

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