14 Facts About Arctic Ocean


Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.

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Arctic Ocean includes the North Pole region in the middle of the Northern Hemisphere and extends south to about 60°N.

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The Arctic Ocean is surrounded by Eurasia and North America, and the borders follow topographic features: the Bering Strait on the Pacific side and the Greenland Scotland Ridge on the Atlantic side.

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In World War II, the European region of the Arctic Ocean was heavily contested: the Allied commitment to resupply the Soviet Union via its northern ports was opposed by German naval and air forces.

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Countries bordering the Arctic Ocean are Russia, Norway, Iceland, Greenland, Canada, and the United States.

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Crystalline basement rocks of mountains around the Arctic Ocean were recrystallized or formed during the Ellesmerian orogeny, the regional phase of the larger Caledonian orogeny in the Paleozoic Era.

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The Arctic Ocean Coring Expedition drilling shed some light on the Lomonosov Ridge, which appears to be continental crust separated from the Barents-Kara Shelf in the Paleocene and then starved of sediment.

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In contrast direct measurements of mixing in the western Arctic Ocean indicate the Atlantic water heat remains isolated at intermediate depths even under the 'perfect storm' conditions of the Great Arctic Ocean Cyclone of 2012.

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Much of the Arctic Ocean is covered by sea ice that varies in extent and thickness seasonally.

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Arctic Ocean is contained in a polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature ranges.

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Climate of the Arctic Ocean region has varied significantly during the Earth's history.

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Currently, the Arctic Ocean region is warming twice as fast as the rest of the planet.

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In ice-covered regions of the central Arctic Ocean, polar cod is a central predator of primary consumers.

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Research shows that the Arctic Ocean may become ice-free in the summer for the first time in human history by 2040.

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