26 Facts About Indo-Aryan languages


Indo-Aryan languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family that are spoken natively by the Indo-Aryan peoples.

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Indo-Aryan family as a whole is thought to represent a dialect continuum, where languages are often transitional towards neighboring varieties.

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The classification of the Indo-Aryan languages is controversial, with many transitional areas that are assigned to different branches depending on classification.

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Anton I Kogan, in 2016, conducted a lexicostatistical study of the New Indo-Aryan languages based on a 100-word Swadesh list, using techniques developed by the glottochronologist and comparative linguist Sergei Starostin.

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Indo-Aryan languages calculated Sinhala–Dhivehi to be the most divergent Indo-Aryan branch.

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Nevertheless, the modern consensus of Indo-Aryan languages linguists tends towards the inclusion of Dardic based on morphological and grammatical features.

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Dardic languages are a group of Indo-Aryan languages largely spoken in the northwestern extremities of the Indian subcontinent.

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Northern Indo-Aryan languages, known as the Pahari languages, are spoken throughout the Himalayan regions of the subcontinent.

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Northwestern Indo-Aryan languages are spoken throughout the northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent.

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Northwestern Indo-Aryan languages are ultimately thought to be descended from Shauraseni Prakrit.

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Western Indo-Aryan languages, are spoken in the central and western areas within India, such as Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan, in addition to contiguous regions in Pakistan.

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In Europe, various Romani Indo-Aryan languages are spoken by the Romani people, an itinerant community who historically migrated from India.

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The Western Indo-Aryan languages are thought to have diverged from their northwestern counterparts, although they have a common antecedent in Shauraseni Prakrit.

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Many of these Indo-Aryan languages, including Braj and Awadhi, have rich literary and poetic traditions.

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Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, known as Magadhan languages, are spoken throughout the eastern subcontinent, including Odisha and Bihar, alongside other regions surrounding the northwestern Himalayan corridor.

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The Eastern Indo-Aryan languages descend from Magadhan Apabhramsa and ultimately from Magadhi Prakrit.

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Marathi-Konkani languages are ultimately descended from Maharashtri Prakrit, whereas Insular Indo-Aryan languages are descended from Elu Prakrit and possess several characteristics that markedly distinguish them from most of their mainland Indo-Aryan counterparts.

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Proto-Indo-Aryan languages is meant to be the predecessor of Old Indo-Aryan languages, which is directly attested as Vedic and Mitanni-Aryan.

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The Indo-Aryan languages superstrate in Mitanni is of similar age to the language of the Rigveda, but the only evidence of it is a few proper names and specialized loanwords.

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Two largest Indo-Aryan languages that formed from Apabhramsa were Bengali and Hindustani; others include Assamese, Sindhi, Gujarati, Odia, Marathi, and Punjabi.

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Domari is an Indo-Aryan languages language spoken by older Dom people scattered across the Middle East.

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Middle Indo-Aryan languages generally employed three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter), and some modern Indo-Aryan languages retain this aspect today.

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The parallels in grammatical gender evolution between Romani and other NIA Indo-Aryan languages have additionally been cited as indications that the forerunner of Romani remained on the Indian subcontinent until a later period, possibly as late as the tenth century.

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Kholosi, Jadgali, and Luwati represent offshoots of the Sindhic subfamily of Indo-Aryan languages that have established themselves in the Persian gulf region, perhaps through sea-based migrations.

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Normative system of New Indo-Aryan languages stops consists of five places of articulation: labial, dental, "retroflex", palatal, and velar, which is the same as that of Sanskrit.

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In Indo-Aryan languages that have lost breathy-voice, the contrast has often been replaced with tone.

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