Joan of Arc is a patron saint of France, honored as a defender of the French nation for her role in the siege of Orleans and her insistence on the coronation of Charles VII of France during the Hundred Years' War.
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Joan Of Arc encouraged the French to aggressively pursue the English during the Loire Campaign, which culminated in another decisive victory at Patay, opening the way for the French army to advance on Reims unopposed, where Charles was crowned as the King of France with Joan Of Arc at his side.
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In early 1430, Joan Of Arc organized a company of volunteers to relieve Compiegne, which had been besieged by the Burgundians—French allies of the English.
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Joan Of Arc was put on trial by Bishop Pierre Cauchon on accusations of heresy, which included blaspheming by wearing men's clothes, acting upon visions that were demonic, and refusing to submit her words and deeds to the judgment of the church.
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Joan Of Arc has been revered as a martyr, and viewed as an obedient daughter of the Roman Catholic Church, an early feminist, and a symbol of freedom and independence.
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Joan Of Arc is portrayed in numerous cultural works, including literature, paintings, sculptures, and music.
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Joan Of Arc was called "Jeanne d'Ay de Domremy" in Charles VII's 1429 letter granting her a coat of arms.
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Joan Of Arc was not taught to read and write in her childhood, and so dictated her letters.
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Joan Of Arc referred to herself in the letters as or as, emphasizing her virginity, and she signed "Jehanne".
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Joan Of Arc's father was a peasant farmer with about 50 acres of land, and he supplemented the family income as a village official, collecting taxes and heading the local watch.
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Joan Of Arc later testified that when she was thirteen, around 1425, a figure she identified as Saint Michael surrounded by angels appeared to her in the garden.
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Joan Of Arc stated that she had these visions frequently and that she often had them when the church bells were rung.
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Joan Of Arc's visions included St Margaret and St Catherine; although Joan never specified, they were probably Margaret of Antioch and Catherine of Alexandria—those most known in the area.
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Joan Of Arc testified that she swore a vow of virginity to these voices.
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Joan Of Arc implied she was this promised maiden, reminding the people around her that there was a saying that France would be destroyed by a woman but would be restored by a virgin.
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Joan Of Arc's petition was refused again, but by this time she had gained the support of two of Baudricourt's soldiers, Jean de Metz and Bertrand de Poulengy.
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Joan Of Arc offered no cures, but reprimanded him for living with his mistress.
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Joan Of Arc continued to wear men's clothes for the remainder of her life.
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Joan Of Arc told him that she had come to raise the siege of Orleans and to lead him to Reims for his coronation.
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Joan Of Arc designed her own banner, and had a sword brought to her from under the altar in the church at Sainte-Catherine-de-Fierbois.
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Once Joan Of Arc joined the Dauphin's cause, her personality began to raise their spirits inspiring devotion and the hope of divine assistance.
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Joan Of Arc was initially treated as a figurehead to raise morale, flying her banner on the battlefield.
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Joan Of Arc was not given any formal command or included in military councils, but quickly gained the support of the Armagnac troops.
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Joan Of Arc always seemed to be present where the fighting was most intense, she frequently stayed with the front ranks, and she gave them a sense she was fighting for their salvation.
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Once Joan Of Arc learned of the attack, she rode out with her banner to the site of the battle, a mile east of Orleans.
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Joan Of Arc arrived as the Armagnac soldiers were retreating after a failed assault.
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Joan Of Arc's appearance rallied the soldiers, who attacked again and took the fortress.
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Joan Of Arc dictated another letter to the English warning them to leave France, and had it tied to a bolt which was fired by a crossbowman.
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Joan Of Arc was wounded by an arrow between the neck and shoulder while holding her banner in the trench on the south bank of the river, but later returned to encourage the final assault that took the fortress.
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Joan Of Arc sent a message to the English to surrender; they refused and she advocated for a direct assault on the walls the next day.
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Joan Of Arc began scaling a siege ladder with her banner in hand but before she could climb the wall, she was struck by a stone which split her helmet.
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The main English army retreated toward Paris; Joan Of Arc urged the Armagnacs to pursue them, and the two armies clashed at the Battle of Patay later that day.
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Joan Of Arc arrived at the battlefield too late to participate in the decisive action, but her encouragement to pursue the English had made the victory possible.
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Joan Of Arc was given a place of honor at the ceremony, and announced that God's will had been fulfilled.
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Joan Of Arc rode out in front of the English positions to try to provoke them to attack.
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Joan Of Arc remained in a trench beneath the city walls until she was rescued after nightfall.
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Joan Of Arc was displeased and argued that the attack should be continued.
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Some writers suggest that Joan Of Arc's expedition to Compiegne without documented permission from the court was a desperate and treasonable action, but others have argued that she could not have launched the expedition without the financial support of the court.
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Typically, he would have been ransomed or exchanged by the capturing force, but Joan Of Arc allowed the townspeople to execute him after a trial.
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The attack failed, and Joan Of Arc was captured; She agreed to surrender to a pro-Burgundian nobleman named Lyonnel de Wandomme, a member of Jean de Luxembourg's contingent.
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Joan Of Arc made another escape attempt while there, jumping from a window of a 70-foot tower and landing in a dry moat; she was injured but survived.
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Joan Of Arc was accused of having blasphemed by wearing men's clothes, of acting upon visions that were demonic, and of refusing to submit her words and deeds to the church because she claimed she would be judged by God alone.
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Joan Of Arc's captors downplayed the secular aspects of her trial by submitting her judgment to an ecclesiastical court, but the trial was politically motivated.
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Joan Of Arc testified that her visions had instructed her to defeat the English and crown Charles, and her success was argued to be evidence she was acting on behalf of God.
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Joan Of Arc should have been in the hands of the church during the trial and guarded by women, but instead was imprisoned by the English and guarded by male soldiers under the command of the Duke of Bedford.
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Joan Of Arc was not read the charges against her until well after her interrogations began.
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One of the trial clerics stepped down because he felt the testimony was coerced and its intention was to entrap Joan Of Arc; another challenged Cauchon's right to judge the trial and was jailed.
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Joan Of Arc induced her interrogators to ask questions sequentially rather than simultaneously, refer back to their records when appropriate, and end the sessions when she requested.
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Joan Of Arc avoided the trap by stating that if she was not in God's grace, she hoped God would put her there, and if she was in God's grace then she hoped she would remain so.
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Joan Of Arc was presented with an abjuration document, which included an agreement that she would not bear arms or wear men's clothing.
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Joan Of Arc exchanged her clothes for a woman's dress and allowed her head to be shaved.
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Joan Of Arc was returned to her cell and kept in chains instead of being transferred to an ecclesiastical prison.
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Joan Of Arc sent clerics to admonish her to remain in submission, but the English prevented them from visiting her.
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Joan Of Arc stated that if they fulfilled their promises and placed her in a decent prison, she would be obedient.
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When Cauchon asked about her visions, Joan Of Arc stated that the voices had blamed her for abjuring out of fear, and that she would not deny them again.
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Joan Of Arc asked to view a cross as she died, and was given one an English soldier made from a stick, which she kissed and placed next to her chest.
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Joan Of Arc embraced it before her hands were bound, and it was held before her eyes during her execution.
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Joan Of Arc's triumphs had raised Armagnac morale, and the English were not able to regain momentum.
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Joan Of Arc's execution created a political liability for Charles, implying that his consecration as the king of France had been achieved through the actions of a heretic.
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Joan Of Arc had been a prisoner of war treated as a political prisoner, and was put to death without basis.
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In 1452, a second inquest into Joan Of Arc's trial was opened by Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville, papal legate and relative of Charles, and Jean Brehal, the recently-appointed Inquisitor of France, who interviewed about 20 witnesses.
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Joan Of Arc's visions played an important role in her condemnation, and her admission that she had returned to heeding them led to her execution.
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Joan Of Arc's visions have been described as hallucinations arising from epilepsy or a temporal lobe tuberculoma.
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Many of these explanations have been challenged; the trial records designed to demonstrate that Joan Of Arc was guilty of heresy are unlikely to provide the objective descriptions of symptoms needed to support a medical diagnosis.
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Joan Of Arc's cross-dressing was the topic of five of the articles of accusation against her during the trial.
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When she left Vaucouleurs to see the Dauphin in Chinon, Joan Of Arc was said to have worn a black doublet, a black tunic, and a short black cap.
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Joan Of Arc was described as wearing furs, a golden surcoat over her armor, and sumptuous riding habits made of precious cloth.
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Joan Of Arc stated that it was her own choice to wear men's clothes, and that she did so not at the request of men but by the command of God and his angels.
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Joan Of Arc stated she would return to wearing women's clothes when she fulfilled her calling.
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Joan Of Arc is one of the most studied people of the Middle Ages, partly because her two trials provided a wealth of documents.
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Joan Of Arc's image has been used by the entire spectrum of French politics, and she is an important reference in political dialogue about French identity and unity.
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Joan Of Arc was viewed as a religious figure in Orleans after the siege was lifted and an annual panegyric was pronounced there on her behalf until the 1800s.
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Joan Of Arc was beatified by Pope Pius X in 1909, and canonized on 16 May 1920 by Pope Benedict XV.
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Joan Of Arc was canonized as a Virgin, not as a Christian martyr because she had been put to death by a canonically constituted court, which did not execute for her faith in Christ, but for her private revelation.
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Joan Of Arc fulfilled the traditionally male role of a military leader, while maintaining her status as a valiant woman.
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Joan Of Arc's legacy has become global, and inspires novels, plays, poems, operas, films, paintings, children's books, advertising, computer games, comics and popular culture across the world.
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