36 Facts About Mosul


Mosul is a major city in northern Iraq, serving as the capital of Nineveh Governorate.

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Mosul is considered to be among the larger and more historically and culturally significant cities of the Arab World.

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Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, one of the largest educational and research centers in the Middle East.

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Together with the nearby Nineveh Plains, Mosul is one of the historic centers of the Assyrian people.

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Mosul is nicknamed al-Faiha, al-Khadrah ("the Green"), and al-Hadbah ("the Humped").

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Mosul remained within the geopolitical province of Assyria for another 13 centuries until the early Muslim conquests of the mid-7th century.

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Mosul became part of the Seleucid Empire after Alexander's conquests in 332 BC.

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Mosul changed hands with the rise of the Sasanian Empire in 225 and became a part of the Sasanian province of Asoristan.

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In 637, during the period of the Caliph Umar, Mosul was annexed to the Rashidun Caliphate by Utba ibn Farqad al-Sulami during the early Arab Muslim invasions and conquests, after which Assyria dissolved as a geopolitical entity.

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Mosul was conquered by the Seljuq Empire in the 11th century.

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Mosul was thenceforth ruled by the Mongol Ilkhanate and Jalairid Sultanate and escaped Timur's destructiveness.

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In 1165, Benjamin of Tudela passed through Mosul; he wrote that he found a small Jewish community estimated at 7, 000 people in Mosul, led by Rabbi Zakkai, presumably connected to the Davidic line.

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Mosul was celebrated for its line of walls, comprising seven gates with large towers, a renowned hospital and a covered market (qaysariyya), and its fabrics and flourishing trades.

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In line with its status as a politically stable trade route between the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf, Mosul developed considerably during the 17th and early 18th centuries.

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In line with its reintegration within central government rule, Mosul was required to conform to new Ottoman reform legislation, including the standardization of tariff rates, the consolidation of internal taxes and the integration of the administrative apparatus with the central government.

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Mosul was the capital of Mosul Vilayet, one of the three vilayets of Ottoman Iraq, with a brief break in 1623, when Persia seized the city.

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In 1926, Iraq's possession of Mosul was confirmed by the League of Nations' brokered agreement between Turkey and Great Britain.

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Former Ottoman Mosul Vilayet became the Nineveh Governorate of Iraq, but Mosul remained the provincial capital.

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Mosul's fortunes revived with the discovery of oil in the area, from the late 1920s onward.

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Mosul fell on 11 April 2003, when the Iraqi Army 5th Corps, loyal to Saddam, abandoned the city and surrendered two days after the fall of Baghdad.

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Mosul served as the operational base for the US Army's 101st Airborne Division during the occupational phase of the Operation Iraqi Freedom.

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In May 2008, US-backed Iraqi Army Forces led by Major General Riyadh Jalal Tawfiq, the commander of military operations in Mosul, launched a military offensive of the Ninawa campaign in hopes of bringing stability and security to the city.

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The battle for Mosul was considered key in the military intervention against ISIL.

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Mosul called it a "fine town with excellent markets, surrounded by fertile districts of which the most celebrated was that round Nineveh where the prophet Jonah was buried.

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Mosul Is chiefly peopled by Curds [Kurds], a sober and industrious race.

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Mosul Dam was built in the 1980s to supply Mosul with hydroelectricity and water.

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Per the United Nations, 15 of the 54 residential districts in the western half of Mosul were heavily damaged while at least 23 were moderately damaged.

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Mosul stands 223 meters above sea level in the Upper Mesopotamia region of the Middle East.

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Mosul has a hot semi-arid climate, verging on the Mediterranean climate (Csa), with extremely hot, prolonged, dry summers, brief and mild autumn and spring, and moderately wet, relatively cool winters.

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Mosul is rich in old historical places and ancient buildings: mosques, castles, churches, monasteries, and schools, many of which have architectural features and decorative work of significance.

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Mosul Museum contains many finds from the ancient sites of the old Assyrian capital cities Nineveh and Nimrud.

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Mosul had the highest proportion of Assyrian Christians of all the Iraqi cities outside of the Kurdish region, and contains several interesting old churches, some of which originally date back to the early centuries of Christianity.

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In technique and style the Mosul school was similar to the painting of the Seljuq Turks, who controlled Iraq at that time, but the Mosul artists had a sharper sense of realism based on the subject matter and degree of detail in the painting rather than on representation in three dimensions, which did not occur.

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These include the University of Mosul, which is the largest university in Mosul, Ninevah University, Al-Hadbaa University College, and the Northern Technical University.

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Mosul has multiple highschools some of which are coeducational while others are gender segregated.

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University of Mosul contains a College of Physical Education and Sports Science which teaches undergraduate and graduate students and performs research in three scientific departments.

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