Talmud is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and Jewish theology.
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The Talmud is the basis for all codes of Jewish law and is widely quoted in rabbinic literature.
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Oldest full manuscript of the Talmud, known as the Munich Talmud, dates from 1342 and is available online.
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The Babylonian Talmud was compiled about the year 500, although it continued to be edited later.
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The word "Talmud", when used without qualification, usually refers to the Babylonian Talmud.
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Jerusalem Talmud, known as the Palestinian Talmud, or, was one of the two compilations of Jewish religious teachings and commentary that was transmitted orally for centuries prior to its compilation by Jewish scholars in the Land of Israel.
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Traditionally, this Talmud was thought to have been redacted in about the year 350 by Rav Muna and Rav Yossi in the Land of Israel.
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The compilers of the Jerusalem Talmud consequently lacked the time to produce a work of the quality they had intended.
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Ethical maxims contained in the Jerusalem Talmud are scattered and interspersed in the legal discussions throughout the several treatises, many of which differing from those in the Babylonian Talmud.
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The language of the Jerusalem Talmud is a western Aramaic dialect, which differs from the form of Aramaic in the Babylonian Talmud.
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The Jerusalem Talmud has not received much attention from commentators, and such traditional commentaries as exist are mostly concerned with comparing its teachings to those of the Talmud Bavli.
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Furthermore, the editing of the Babylonian Talmud was superior to that of the Jerusalem version, making it more accessible and readily usable.
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Structure of the Talmud follows that of the Mishnah, in which six orders of general subject matter are divided into 60 or 63 tractates of more focused subject compilations, though not all tractates have Gemara.
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Commentaries on the Talmud constitute only a small part of Rabbinic literature in comparison with the responsa literature and the commentaries on the codices.
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The Tosafot that are printed in the standard Vilna edition of the Talmud are an edited version compiled from the various medieval collections, predominantly that of Touques.
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Pilpul practitioners posited that the Talmud could contain no redundancy or contradiction whatsoever.
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Text of the Talmud has been subject to some level of critical scrutiny throughout its history.
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Talmud was translated by Shimon Moyal into Arabic in 1909.
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Edition of the Talmud published by the Szapira brothers in Slavita was published in 1817, and it is particularly prized by many rebbes of Hasidic Judaism.
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Page number in the Vilna Talmud refers to a double-sided page, known as a daf, or folio in English; each daf has two amudim labeled and, sides A and B .
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Survivors' Talmud was published, encouraged by President Truman's "responsibility toward these victims of persecution" statement.
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Collection of controversies, dissertations, and prescriptions commonly designated by the name Talmud possesses for us no authority, from either the dogmatic or the practical standpoint.
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The Rohr Jewish Learning Institute has popularized the "MyShiur – Explorations in Talmud" to show how the Talmud is relevant to a wide range of people.
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Study of Talmud is not restricted to those of the Jewish religion and has attracted interest in other cultures.
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Talmud contains biblical exegesis and commentary on Tanakh that will often clarify elliptical and esoteric passages.
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The Talmud provides cultural and historical context to the Gospel and the writings of the Apostles.
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Between 2007 and 2009, Reverend Yong-soo Hyun of the Shema Yisrael Educational Institute published a 6-volume edition of the Korean Talmud, bringing together material from a variety of Tokayer's earlier books.
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Talmud worked with Tokayer to correct errors and Tokayer is listed as the author.
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Talmud was likewise the subject of the Disputation of Barcelona in 1263 between Nahmanides and Christian convert, Pablo Christiani.
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An unexpected result of this affair was the complete printed edition of the Babylonian Talmud issued in 1520 by Daniel Bomberg at Venice, under the protection of a papal privilege.
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External history of the Talmud includes the literary attacks made upon it by some Christian theologians after the Reformation since these onslaughts on Judaism were directed primarily against that work, the leading example being Eisenmenger's Entdecktes Judenthum .
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In contrast, the Talmud was a subject of rather more sympathetic study by many Christian theologians, jurists and Orientalists from the Renaissance on, including Johann Reuchlin, John Selden, Petrus Cunaeus, John Lightfoot and Johannes Buxtorf father and son.
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Vilna edition of the Talmud was subject to Russian government censorship, or self-censorship to meet government expectations, though this was less severe than some previous attempts: the title "Talmud" was retained and the tractate Avodah Zarah was included.
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Some modern editions of the Talmud contain some or all of this material, either at the back of the book, in the margin, or in its original location in the text.
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Gil Student, Book Editor of the Orthodox Union's Jewish Action magazine, states that many attacks on the Talmud are merely recycling discredited material that originated in the 13th-century disputations, particularly from Raymond Marti and Nicholas Donin, and that the criticisms are based on quotations taken out of context and are sometimes entirely fabricated.
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