20 Facts About Arikara


Arikara, known as Sahnish, Arikaree, Ree, or Hundi, are a tribe of Native Americans in North Dakota.

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Arikara's name is believed to mean "horns", in reference to the ancient custom of wearing two upright bones in their hair.

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Arikara language is a member of the Caddoan language family.

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Arikara is close to the Pawnee language, but they are not mutually intelligible.

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Arikara was a certified language teacher who participated in Arikara language education programs.

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The amount of trading items passing through the Arikara villages made them a "trading center on the Upper Missouri".

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Arikara played a central role in the Great Plains Indian trading networks based on an advantageous geographical position combined with a surplus from agriculture and craft.

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Historical sources show that the Arikara villages were visited by Cree, Assiniboine, Crow, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Sioux, Kiowa, Plains Apache and Comanche.

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Arikara returned to the earth with a leader who taught them how to fight their enemies rather than one another.

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Arikara faced many challenges during the first quarter of the 19th century: Reduced numbers, competition from white traders, and military pressure from the Lakota and other groups of Sioux.

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The Arikara joined old foes the Sioux in raids on Mandan and Hidatsa Indians.

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The Arikara escaped at night, and angry fur traders set their empty lodges ablaze the next morning.

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Bloody Hand and other Arikara chiefs signed a peace treaty with the United States on July 18,1825.

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The rootless Arikara lived near their southern "kinfolk, " the Skidi Pawnee, for some years.

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The surviving Arikara took over the almost empty Mandan village Mitutanka next to Fort Clark.

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The basic treaty area of the Arikara, the Hidatsa and the Mandan was a mutual territory north of Heart River, encircled on the east and north by the Missouri and on the west by Yellowstone River down to the mouth of Powder River.

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Arikara hunters were waylaid and had difficulties securing enough game and hides.

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The Arikara crossed the Missouri and built new earth lodges and log houses near the common Mandan and Hidatsa village Like-a-Fishhook Village.

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Custer's favorite scout, an Arikara known as Bloody Knife, fell during the Battle of the Little Bighorn in the Crow Indian Reservation in 1876.

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The Arikara Indians were considered citizens of the United States—and no more tribal village dwellers.

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