43 Facts About Cheyenne


The Cheyenne comprise two Native American tribes, the So'taeo'o or So'taetaneo'o and the Tsetsehestahese ( spelled Tsitsistas, ).

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Cheyenne are composed of two tribes, the So'taeo'o or So'taetaneo'o and the Tsetsehestahese (more commonly as the Tsitsistas; singular: Tsetsehestaestse), which translates to "those who are like this".

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The Cheyenne language is one of the larger Algonquian-language group.

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The most prominent of the ancient Cheyenne villages is Biesterfeldt Village, in eastern North Dakota along the Sheyenne River.

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Such European explorers learned many different names for the Cheyenne and did not realize how the different sections were forming a unified tribe.

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Cheyenne organized the structure of Cheyenne society, their military or war societies led by prominent warriors, their system of legal justice, and the Council of Forty-four peace chiefs, the latter was formed from four vehoo'o of the ten principal manaho (bands) and an additional four ?Old Man? meeting to deliberate at regular tribal gatherings, centered around the Sun Dance.

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Cheyenne was named for motse'eonotse, one of the sacred plant medicines used by many Plains peoples in ceremonies.

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Cheyenne's vision convinced the tribe to abandon their earlier sedentary agricultural traditions to adopt nomadic Plains horse culture.

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In 1908 a Cheyenne named Three Fingers gave the horn back to the Hat; the pipe came into possession of a Cheyenne named Burnt All Over who gave it to Hattie Goit of Poteau, Oklahoma who in 1911 gave the pipe to the Oklahoma Historical Society.

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Sometime around 1811, the Cheyenne made a formal alliance with the Arapaho people, which would remain strong throughout their history and into modern times.

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The alliance helped the Cheyenne expand their territory which stretched from southern Montana, through most of Wyoming, the eastern half of Colorado, far western Nebraska, and far western Kansas.

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The groups became the Southern Cheyenne, known as Sowonia and the Northern Cheyenne, known as O'mi'sis (Eaters).

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The new alliance allowed the Cheyenne to enter the Llano Estacado in the Texas and Oklahoma panhandles and northeastern New Mexico to hunt bison and trade.

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Each of the six distinct warrior societies of the Cheyenne would take turns assuming the leadership role within the nation.

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The four original military societies of the Cheyenne were the Swift Fox Society, Elk Horn Scrapper or Crooked Lance Society, Shield Society, and the Bowstring Men Society.

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Enemies of the Cheyenne included the Crow people"), Shoshone (Sosone'eo'o), Blackfeet (Mo'ohtavehahtataneo'o, same literal meaning), Flathead (Kahkoestseataneo'o – "flat-headed-people"), Nez Perce (Otaesetaneo'o – "pierced nose people"), Arikara, Gros Ventre (Hestoetaneo'o – "beggars for meat", "spongers" or Mohonooneo'o – lit.

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The Cheyenne lost the Medicine Arrows during an attack on a hunting camp of Pawnees around 1830.

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Many of the enemies the Cheyenne fought were only encountered occasionally, such as on a long-distance raid or hunt.

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Some of their enemies such as the Lakota would later in their history become their strong allies, helping the Cheyenne fight against the United States Army during Red Cloud's War and the Great Sioux War of 1876.

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The Arapaho remained strong allies with the Cheyenne and helped them fight alongside the Sioux during Red Cloud's War and the Great Sioux War of 1876, known commonly as the Black Hills War.

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Cheyenne parties attacked at least three emigrant settler parties before returning to the Republican River.

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The Indian agent at Fort Laramie negotiated with the Cheyenne to reduce hostilities, but the Secretary of War ordered the 1st Cavalry Regiment to carry out a punitive expedition under the command of Colonel Edwin V Sumner.

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Under the influence of the medicine man White Bull and Grey Beard ( called Dark), the Cheyenne went into battle believing that strong spiritual medicine would prevent the soldiers' guns from firing.

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Hands raised, the Cheyenne surrounded the advancing troops as they advanced near the Solomon River.

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Cheyenne intended further punitive actions, but the Army ordered him to Utah because of an outbreak of trouble with the Mormons.

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The Cheyenne moved below the Arkansas into Kiowa and Comanche country.

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US negotiations with Black Kettle and other Cheyenne favoring peace resulted in the Treaty of Fort Wise: it established a small reservation for the Cheyenne in southeastern Colorado in exchange for the territory agreed to in the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851.

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Many Cheyenne did not sign the treaty, and they continued to live and hunt on their traditional grounds in the Smokey Hill and Republican basins, between the Arkansas and the South Platte, where there were plentiful buffalo.

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Cheyenne left the large camp and returned with 80 lodges of his tribesmen to the Arkansas River, where he intended to seek peace with the US.

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Cheyenne'storians believe that Chief Black Kettle, head of the band, was not part of the war party but the peace party within the Cheyenne nation.

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Northern Cheyenne fought in the Battle of the Little Bighorn, which took place on June 25, 1876.

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Cheyenne'storians have estimated that the population of the Cheyenne, Lakota and Arapaho encampment along the Little Bighorn River was approximately 10, 000, making it one of the largest gatherings of Native Americans in North America in pre-reservation times.

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The Cheyenne wanted and expected to live on the reservation with the Sioux in accordance to an April 29, 1868 treaty of Fort Laramie, which both Dull Knife and Little Wolf had signed.

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On 9 September 1878, a portion of the Northern Cheyenne, led by Little Wolf and Dull Knife started their trek back to the north.

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Cheyenne who traveled to Fort Keogh, including Little Wolf, settled near the fort.

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The Cheyenne scouts were pivotal in helping the Army find Chief Joseph and his band of Nez Perce in northern Montana.

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Northern Cheyenne, who were sharing the Lakota land at Pine Ridge Indian Reservation were finally allowed to return to the Tongue River on their own reservation.

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Northern Cheyenne were given the right to remain in the north, near the Black Hills, land which they consider sacred.

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The Cheyenne managed to retain their culture, religion and language.

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The central traditional government system of the Cheyenne is the Arrow Keeper, followed by the Council of Forty-Four.

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Studies into whether, and if so, how much the Cheyenne developed a matrilineal clan system are continuing.

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The Cheyenne held territory in and near the Black Hills, but later all the Great Plains from Dakota to the Arkansas River.

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Cheyenne woman has a higher status if she is part of an extended family with distinguished ancestors.

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