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37 Facts About Arapaho
Northern Arapaho, who called themselves or, were known as or to the Southern Arapaho, whereas the latter were called by their northern kin or.
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Arapaho recognize five main divisions among their people, each speaking a different dialect and apparently representing as many originally distinct but cognate tribes.
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Arapaho elders claimed that the Hanahawuuena dialect was the most difficult to comprehend of all the dialects.
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Arapaho language is currently spoken in two different dialects, and it is considered to be a member of the Algonquian language family.
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The Arapaho acquired horses in the early 1700s from other tribes, which changed their way of life.
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Gradually, the Arapaho moved farther south, split into the closely allied Northern and Southern Arapaho, and established a large joint territory spanning land in southern Montana, most of Wyoming, the Nebraska Panhandle, central and eastern Colorado, western Oklahoma, and extreme western Kansas.
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The Arapaho often viewed the Gros Ventre as inferior and referred to them as Hitunena or Hitouuteen, meaning "beggars".
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Once established, the Arapaho began to expand on the plains through trade, warfare, and alliances with other plains tribes.
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The Arapaho freely entered various trading posts and trade fairs to exchange mostly bison hides and beaver furs for European goods such as firearms.
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The Arapaho were a prominent trading group in the Great Plains region.
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Arapaho warriors used a variety of weapons, including war-clubs, lances, knives, tomahawks, bows, shotguns, rifles, and pistols.
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Arapaho fought with the Pawnee, Omaha, Ho-chunk, Osage, Ponca, and Kaw east of their territory.
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Together with their allies, the Arapaho fought with invading US soldiers, miners, and settlers across Arapaho territory and the territory of their allies.
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Arapaho heard there were 175 cattle head stolen from the government.
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Once in the area of the Powder River, the Arapaho noticed an increase in travelers moving along the established Bozeman trail, which led to the Montana goldfields.
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Only five Arapaho were present at the battle and their presence was by chance.
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The fifth Arapaho was a Southern Arapaho named Well-Knowing One but known as Green Grass.
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The five Arapaho set out as a war party from near Fort Robinson to raid the Shoshone, but by chance came across a small party of young Sioux warriors.
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Water Man claimed killing one soldier while charging up the steep river banks but did not take his scalp because most Arapaho refused to take a scalp from someone with short hair.
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Arapaho was dressed in buckskin, coat and pants, and was on his hands and knees.
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Arapaho had been shot through the side and there was blood coming from his mouth.
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Arapaho seemed to be watching the Indians moving around him.
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Arapaho warrior Left Hand accidentally killed a Lakota warrior that he mistook for an Arikara scout, and despite further anger from the Lakota, left the battle alive along with the other four Arapaho.
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The Arapaho myth begins with a being called Flat Pipe who exists alone upon the water.
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Arapaho first conceives of ducks and other water birds who dive beneath the surface of the water but are not able to find land.
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Arapaho have historically had social and spiritual roles for those who are known in contemporary Native cultures as Two Spirit or third gender.
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Anthropologist Alfred Kroeber wrote about male-bodied individuals who lived as women, the haxu'xan, who he says were believed to have "the natural desire to become women, and as they grew up gradually became women" ; he further stated that the Arapaho believed that the haxu'xan's gender was a supernatural gift from birds or other animals, that they had miraculous powers, and they were noted for their inventiveness, such as making the first intoxicant from rainwater.
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Meanwhile, the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes operate four casinos in Oklahoma: the Lucky Star Casino in Clinton, the Lucky Star Casino in Watonga, the Feather Warrior Casino in Canton, and the newest casino which opened in 2018, the Lucky Star Casino in Hammon.
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