37 Facts About Arapaho


Arapaho are a Native American people historically living on the plains of Colorado and Wyoming.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,656

Northern Arapaho, who called themselves or, were known as or to the Southern Arapaho, whereas the latter were called by their northern kin or.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,657

Arapaho recognize five main divisions among their people, each speaking a different dialect and apparently representing as many originally distinct but cognate tribes.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,658

Arapaho elders claimed that the Hanahawuuena dialect was the most difficult to comprehend of all the dialects.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,659

Arapaho language is currently spoken in two different dialects, and it is considered to be a member of the Algonquian language family.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,660

Around 3,000 years ago, the ancestral Arapaho-speaking people lived in the western Great Lakes region along the Red River Valley in what is classified as present-day Manitoba, Canada and Minnesota, United States.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,661

Ancestors of the Arapaho people entered the Great Plains the western Great Lakes region sometime before 1700.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,662

The Arapaho acquired horses in the early 1700s from other tribes, which changed their way of life.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,663

Gradually, the Arapaho moved farther south, split into the closely allied Northern and Southern Arapaho, and established a large joint territory spanning land in southern Montana, most of Wyoming, the Nebraska Panhandle, central and eastern Colorado, western Oklahoma, and extreme western Kansas.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,664

The Arapaho often viewed the Gros Ventre as inferior and referred to them as Hitunena or Hitouuteen, meaning "beggars".

FactSnippet No. 2,248,665

Once established, the Arapaho began to expand on the plains through trade, warfare, and alliances with other plains tribes.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,666

One band of Southern Arapaho became so closely allied with the Comanche that they were absorbed into the tribe, adopted the Comanche language, and became a band of Comanche known as the Saria T?hka 'dog-eaters'.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,667

Along the upper Missouri River, the Arapaho actively traded with the farming villages of the Arikara, Mandan, and Hidatsa, trading meat and hides for corn, squash, and beans.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,668

The Arapaho freely entered various trading posts and trade fairs to exchange mostly bison hides and beaver furs for European goods such as firearms.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,669

The Arapaho frequently encountered fur traders in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, and the headwaters of the Platte and Arkansas.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,670

The Arapaho were a prominent trading group in the Great Plains region.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,671

Arapaho warriors used a variety of weapons, including war-clubs, lances, knives, tomahawks, bows, shotguns, rifles, and pistols.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,672

Arapaho fought with the Pawnee, Omaha, Ho-chunk, Osage, Ponca, and Kaw east of their territory.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,673

Together with their allies, the Arapaho fought with invading US soldiers, miners, and settlers across Arapaho territory and the territory of their allies.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,674

Arapaho heard there were 175 cattle head stolen from the government.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,675

Once in the area of the Powder River, the Arapaho noticed an increase in travelers moving along the established Bozeman trail, which led to the Montana goldfields.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,676

Only five Arapaho were present at the battle and their presence was by chance.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,677

The Arapaho present were four Northern Arapaho warriors named Yellow Eagle, Yellow Fly, Left Hand, and Water Man.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,678

The fifth Arapaho was a Southern Arapaho named Well-Knowing One but known as Green Grass.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,679

The five Arapaho set out as a war party from near Fort Robinson to raid the Shoshone, but by chance came across a small party of young Sioux warriors.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,680

The Sioux thought that the Arapaho were United States Army Indian Scouts and invited them back to their camp along the Little Bighorn River, where they were captured and had their guns taken from them.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,681

Water Man claimed killing one soldier while charging up the steep river banks but did not take his scalp because most Arapaho refused to take a scalp from someone with short hair.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,682

Arapaho was dressed in buckskin, coat and pants, and was on his hands and knees.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,683

Arapaho had been shot through the side and there was blood coming from his mouth.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,684

Arapaho seemed to be watching the Indians moving around him.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,685

Arapaho warrior Left Hand accidentally killed a Lakota warrior that he mistook for an Arikara scout, and despite further anger from the Lakota, left the battle alive along with the other four Arapaho.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,686

The Arapaho myth begins with a being called Flat Pipe who exists alone upon the water.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,687

Arapaho first conceives of ducks and other water birds who dive beneath the surface of the water but are not able to find land.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,688

Arapaho have historically had social and spiritual roles for those who are known in contemporary Native cultures as Two Spirit or third gender.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,689

Anthropologist Alfred Kroeber wrote about male-bodied individuals who lived as women, the haxu'xan, who he says were believed to have "the natural desire to become women, and as they grew up gradually became women" ; he further stated that the Arapaho believed that the haxu'xan's gender was a supernatural gift from birds or other animals, that they had miraculous powers, and they were noted for their inventiveness, such as making the first intoxicant from rainwater.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,690

Presently, the Arapaho Tribe owns and operates high-stakes, Class III gaming at the Wind River Casino, the Little Wind Casino, and the 789 Smoke Shop and Casino.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,691

Meanwhile, the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes operate four casinos in Oklahoma: the Lucky Star Casino in Clinton, the Lucky Star Casino in Watonga, the Feather Warrior Casino in Canton, and the newest casino which opened in 2018, the Lucky Star Casino in Hammon.

FactSnippet No. 2,248,692