39 Facts About Bayonne


Bayonne is alongside Biarritz the seat of the CA Pays Basque.

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Bayonne flourished after regaining the maritime trade that it had lost for more than a hundred years.

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Bayonne is a cultural capital, a city with strong Basque and Gascon influences, and a rich historical past.

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Bayonne is located in the south-west of France on the western border between Basque Country and Gascony.

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Bayonne occupies a territory characterized by a flat relief to the west and to the north towards the Landes forest, tending to slightly raise towards the south and east.

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Climate of Bayonne is relatively similar to that of its neighbour Biarritz, described below, with fairly heavy rainfall; the oceanic climate is due to the proximity of the Atlantic Ocean.

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Bayonne is located at the intersection of the A63 autoroute and the D1 extension of the A64 autoroute .

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Bayonne was traversed by Route nationale 10 connecting Paris to Hendaye but this is downgraded to a departmental road D810.

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Bayonne is connected to many cities in the western half of the department such as Saint-Jean-de-Luz and Saint-Palais by the Pyrenees-Atlantiques long-distance coach network of Transport 64 managed by the General Council.

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Bayonne is served by services from the Landes departmental network, XL'R.

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Gare de Bayonne is located in the Saint-Esprit district and is an important station on the Bordeaux-Irun railway.

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Bayonne is served by the Biarritz – Anglet – Bayonne Airport, located on the communal territories of Anglet and Biarritz.

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Airport management is carried out by the joint association for the development and operation of the airport of Biarritz-Anglet-Bayonne, which includes the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Bayonne Basque Country, the agglomeration of Cote Basque-Adour, the departments of Pyrenees-Atlantiques and Landes, and the commune of Saint-Jean-de-Luz.

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Termination -onne in Bayonne can come from many in hydronyms -onne or toponyms derived from that.

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Names of the Basque province of Labourd and the locality of Bayonne have been attested from an early period with the place name Bayonne appearing in the Latin form Lapurdum after a period during which the two names could in turn designate a Viscounty or Bishopric.

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Labourd and Bayonne were synonymous and used interchangeably until the 12th century before being differentiated: Labord for the province and Bayonne for the city.

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The history of Bayonne proper started in 1056 when Raymond II the Younger, Bishop of Bazas, had the mission to build the Church of Bayonne.

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Bayonne came under English rule when Eleanor of Aquitaine married Henry II of England in 1152.

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At the time the Spanish Inquisition raged in the Iberian Peninsula Spanish and Portuguese Jews fled Spain and later, Portugal, then settled in Southern France, including in Saint-Esprit, a northern district of Bayonne located along the northern bank of the Adour river.

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Golden age of the city ended in the 15th century with the loss of trade with England and the silting of the port of Bayonne created by the movement of the course of the Adour to the north.

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From 1611 to 1612 the college Principal of Bayonne was a man of 26 years old with a future: Cornelius Jansen known as Jansenius, the future Bishop of Ypres.

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Bayonne became the birthplace of Jansenism, an austere science which strongly disrupted the monarchy of Louis XIV.

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Bayonne added a citadel built on a hill overlooking the district of San Espirit Cap deou do Punt.

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Also in 1808 the French Empire imposed on the Duchy of Warsaw the Convention of Bayonne to buy from France the debts owed to it by Prussia.

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The Siege of Bayonne marked the end of the period with the surrender of the Napoleonic troops of Marshal Jean-de-Dieu Soult who were defeated by the coalition led by Wellington on 5 May 1814.

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Bayonne turned instead to the steel industry with the forges of the Adour.

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Bayonne responded well, with some astonishment, to his persistent interview.

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City of Bayonne is part of the Communaute d'agglomeration du Pays Basque which includes Anglet, Biarritz, Bidart, Boucau, Hendaye and Saint-Jean-de-Luz.

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On 14 December 2015 Bayonne had 10 kindergartens, 22 elementary or primary schools .

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Bayonne is the focus of much of the hospital services for the agglomeration of Bayonne and the southern Landes.

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Bayonne is in the Diocese of Bayonne, Lescar and Oloron, with a suffragan bishop since 2002 under the Archdiocese of Bordeaux.

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Carmel of Bayonne, located in the Marracq district, has had a community of Carmelite nuns since 1858.

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The Jewish community of Bayonne is old—it consists of different groups of fugitives from Navarre and Portugal who established at Saint-Esprit-les-Bayonne after the expulsion of Jews from Spain in 1492 and Portugal in 1496.

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Bayonne is the economic capital of the agglomeration of Bayonne and southern Landes.

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Bayonne has few such industries, as indicated in the previous tables.

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Bayonne is known for its fine chocolates, produced in the town for 500 years, and Bayonne ham, a cured ham seasoned with peppers from nearby Espelette.

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Bayonne is the centre of certain craft industries that were once widespread, including the manufacture of makilas, traditional Basque walking-sticks.

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Port of Bayonne is located at the mouth of the Adour, downstream of the city.

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Grand Bayonne is the commercial and civic hub, with small pedestrianised streets packed with shops, plus the cathedral and Hotel de Ville.

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