50 Facts About Chola dynasty


The earliest datable references to the Chola dynasty are from inscriptions dated to the 3rd century BCE during the reign of Ashoka of the Maurya Empire.

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The Chola dynasty fleet represented the zenith of ancient Indian maritime capacity.

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Rajaraja Chola dynasty conquered peninsular South India, annexed part of the Rajarata kingdom in present-day Sri Lanka, and occupied Maldives islands.

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In 1025, Rajendra Chola dynasty successfully invaded the cities of Srivijaya empire, based on the island of Sumatra.

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The Chola dynasty went into decline at the beginning of the 13th century with the rise of the Pandyan dynasty, which ultimately caused their downfall.

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The Chola dynasty kings were avid builders and envisioned the temples in their kingdoms not only as places of worship but as centers of economic activity.

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Commonly held view is that Chola dynasty is, like Chera and Pandya, the name of the ruling family or clan of immemorial antiquity.

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In Tamil lexicon Chola dynasty means Soazhi or Saei denoting a newly formed kingdom, in the lines of Pandya or the old country.

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Two names are prominent among those Chola dynasty kings known to have existed who feature in Sangam literature: Karikala and Kocengannan.

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The Mahavamsa mentions that an ethnic Tamil adventurer, a Chola dynasty prince known as Ellalan, invaded the Rajarata kingdom of Sri Lanka and conquered it in 235 BCE with the help of a Mysore army.

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Vijayalaya was the founder of the Imperial Chola dynasty which was the beginning of one of the most splendid empires in Indian history.

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Chola dynasty was at the peak of its influence and power during the medieval period.

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At its peak, the Chola dynasty Empire stretched from the northern parts of Sri Lanka in the south to the Godavari-Krishna river basin in the north, up to the Konkan coast in Bhatkal, the entire Malabar Coast in addition to Lakshadweep, and Maldives.

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Chola dynasty integrated his empire into a tight administrative grid under royal control, and at the same time strengthened local self-government.

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Chola dynasty defeated Hoysala generals fought under Veera Ballala II at Karuvur.

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In 1025, Rajendra Chola dynasty launched naval raids on ports of Srivijaya and against the Burmese kingdom of Pegu.

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Rajaraja Chola dynasty's daughter married Chalukya prince Vimaladitya and Rajendra Chola dynasty's daughter Ammanga Devi was married to the Eastern Chalukya prince Rajaraja Narendra.

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Rajendra Chola dynasty III who succeeded Rajaraja III was a much better ruler who took bold steps to revive the Chola dynasty fortunes.

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Chola dynasty led successful expeditions to the north as attested by his epigraphs found as far as Cuddappah.

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Chola dynasty defeated two Pandya princes one of whom was Maravarman Sundara Pandya II and briefly made the Pandyas submit to the Chola overlordship.

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Thus the Chola dynasty empire was completely overshadowed by the Pandyan empire and sank into obscurity by the end of the 13th century and until period of the Vijayanagara empire.

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However, the Chola dynasty seemed to have it survived elsewhere outside of India.

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Chola dynasty was born in the previously Chola occupied Srivijaya.

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Chola dynasty was sent by the Maharajah to establish a base for expeditionary forces, but he rebelled and established his own independent rajahnate.

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The Chola dynasty kings built temples and endowed them with great wealth.

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The Chola Dynasty was divided into several provinces called which were further divided into, which were subdivided into units called or.

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Chola dynasty had a robust military, of which the king was the supreme commander.

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The Chola dynasty army was spread all over the country and was stationed in local garrisons or military camps known as Kodagams.

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Chola dynasty rulers built several palaces and fortifications to protect their cities.

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Soldiers of the Chola dynasty used weapons such as swords, bows, javelins, spears and shields which were made up of steel.

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The Chola dynasty rulers issued their coins in gold, silver and copper.

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The Chola dynasty economy was based on three tiers—at the local level, agricultural settlements formed the foundation to commercial towns nagaram, which acted as redistribution centres for externally produced items bound for consumption in the local economy and as sources of products made by nagaram artisans for the international trade.

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Uraiyur, the capital of the early Chola dynasty rulers, was a famous centre for cotton textiles which were praised by Tamil poets.

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The Vellalar community was the dominant secular aristocratic caste under the Chola dynasty rulers, providing the courtiers, most of the army officers, the lower ranks of the bureaucracy and the upper layer of the peasantry.

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Apart from sinking wells and excavating tanks, the Chola dynasty rulers threw mighty stone dams across the Kaveri and other rivers, and cut out channels to distribute water over large tracts of land.

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The Vellalar community was the dominant secular aristocratic caste under the Chola dynasty rulers, providing the courtiers, most of the army officers, the lower ranks of the bureaucracy and the upper layer of the peasantry.

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The encouragement by the Chola dynasty court furthered the expansion of Tamil merchant associations such as the Ayyavole and Manigramam guilds into Southeast Asia and China.

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The market structure and economic policies of the Chola dynasty were more conducive to a large-scale, cross-regional market trade than those enacted by the Chinese Song Dynasty.

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Rajendra Chola dynasty built a huge tank named Solagangam in his capital city Gangaikonda Solapuram and was described as the liquid pillar of victory.

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Cholas continued the temple-building traditions of the Pallava dynasty and contributed significantly to the Dravidian temple design.

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Architectural historian James Fergusson says that "the Chola dynasty artists conceived like giants and finished like jewelers".

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The maturity and grandeur to which the Chola dynasty architecture had evolved found expression in the two temples of Thanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram.

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Imperial Chola dynasty era was the golden age of Tamil culture, marked by the importance of literature.

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Chola dynasty records cite many works, including the Rajarajesvara Natakam, Viranukkaviyam and Kannivana Puranam.

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Chola dynasty imports into his narration the colour and landscape of his own time; his description of Kosala is an idealised account of the features of the Chola country.

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Chola dynasty rulers took an active interest in the development of temple centres and used the temples to widen the sphere of their royal authority.

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Kocengannan, an Early Chola dynasty, was celebrated in both Sangam literature and in the Shaivite canon as a Hindu saint.

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Chola dynasty pronounced that the great temples of Shiva and the Ranganatha temple were to be the Kuladhanam of the Chola emperors.

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Chola dynasty prayed before him before his embarking on war to regain the territories in and around Kanchi and Arcot from the waning Rashtrakutas and while leading expeditions against both Madurai and Ilam.

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The work Parpannamritam refers to the Chola dynasty king called Krimikanta who is said to have removed the Govindaraja idol from the Chidambaram Nataraja temple.

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