Indus Valley River provides key water resources for Pakistan's economy – especially the breadbasket of Punjab province, which accounts for most of the nation's agricultural production, and Sindh.
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Ultimate source of the Indus Valley is in Tibet, but there is some debate about the exact source.
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Indus Valley is one of the few rivers in the world to exhibit a tidal bore.
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The Indus Valley system is largely fed by the snow and glaciers of the Himalayas, Karakoram and the Hindu Kush ranges.
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The Indus Valley Civilisation extended from across northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India, with an upward reach from east of Jhelum River to Ropar on the upper Sutlej.
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Only 40 Indus Valley sites have been discovered on the Indus and its tributaries.
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The first West Eurasian empire to annex the Indus Valley was the Persian Empire, during the reign of Darius the Great.
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The Indus Valley was later dominated by the Mauryan and Kushan Empires, Indo-Greek Kingdoms, Indo-Scythians and Hepthalites.
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Indus Valley is an antecedent river, meaning that it existed before the Himalayas and entrenched itself while they were rising.
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Indus Valley river feeds the Indus Valley submarine fan, which is the second largest sediment body on the Earth.
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Analysis of sediments from the Arabian Sea has demonstrated that prior to five million years ago the Indus Valley was not connected to these Punjab rivers which instead flowed east into the Ganga and were captured after that time.
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The delta of this proto-Indus Valley river has subsequently been found in the Katawaz Basin, on the Afghan-Pakistan border.
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The smooth-coated otters in the Indus Valley River represent a subspecies found nowhere else, the Sindh otter.
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In some upland lakes and tributaries of the Punjab region snowtrout and mahseer are still common, but once the Indus Valley basin reaches its lower plain the former group is entirely absent and the latter are rare.
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The extensive linking of tributaries with the Indus has helped spread water resources to the valley of Peshawar, in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
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Ethnicities of the Indus Valley have a greater amount of ANI admixture than other South Asians, including inputs from Western Steppe Herders, with evidence of more sustained and multi-layered migrations from the west.
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Vegetation and wildlife of the Indus Valley delta are threatened by the reduced inflow of fresh water, along with extensive deforestation, industrial pollution and global warming.
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