Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau was a Canadian lawyer and politician who served as the 15th prime minister of Canada from 1968 to 1979 and from 1980 to 1984.
137 Facts About Pierre Trudeau
Pierre Trudeau briefly served as the leader of the Opposition from 1979 to 1980.
Pierre Trudeau was then an associate professor of law at the Universite de Montreal.
Pierre Trudeau was originally part of the social democratic New Democratic Party, though felt they could not achieve power, and instead joined the Liberal Party in 1965.
Pierre Trudeau won a fourth election victory shortly afterwards, in 1980, and eventually retired from politics shortly before the 1984 election.
Pierre Trudeau is the most recent prime minister to win four elections and to serve two non-consecutive terms.
Pierre Trudeau suppressed the 1970 Quebec terrorist crisis by controversially invoking the War Measures Act, the third and last time in Canadian history that the act was brought into force.
In other domestic policy, Pierre Trudeau pioneered official bilingualism and multiculturalism, fostering a pan-Canadian identity.
Pierre Trudeau formed close ties with the Soviet Union, China, and Cuban leader Fidel Castro, putting him at odds with other capitalist Western nations.
Pierre Trudeau successfully campaigned against the Meech Lake and Charlottetown Accords, arguing they would strengthen Quebec nationalism.
Pierre Trudeau is ranked highly among scholars in rankings of Canadian prime ministers, though some of his policies have been the subject of long-lasting debate.
In 1659, the first Pierre Trudeau to arrive in Canada was Etienne Pierre Trudeau or Truteau, a carpenter and home builder from La Rochelle.
Pierre Trudeau was born at home in Outremont, Montreal, Quebec, on October 18,1919, to Charles-Emile "Charley" Trudeau, a French-Canadian businessman and lawyer, and Grace Elliott, who was of mixed Scottish and French-Canadian descent.
Pierre Trudeau had an older sister named Suzette and a younger brother named Charles Jr.
Pierre Trudeau remained close to both siblings for his entire life.
Pierre Trudeau attended the prestigious College Jean-de-Brebeuf, where he supported Quebec nationalism.
Pierre Trudeau graduated from College Jean-de-Brebeuf in 1940 at the age of twenty-one.
Pierre Trudeau consulted several people on his options, including Henri Bourassa, the economist Edmond Montpetit, and Father Robert Bernier, a Franco-Manitoban.
Pierre Trudeau described a speech he heard in Montreal by Ernest Lapointe, minister of justice and Prime Minister William Mackenzie King's Quebec lieutenant.
Lapointe was aware that a new conscription crisis would destroy national unity that Mackenzie King had been trying to build since the end of World War I Trudeau believed Lapointe had lied and broken his promise.
Pierre Trudeau continued his full-time studies in law at the Universite de Montreal while in the COTC from 1940 until his graduation in 1943.
At Harvard, an American and predominantly Protestant university, Pierre Trudeau who was French Catholic and was for the first time living outside the province of Quebec, felt like an outsider.
Pierre Trudeau studied at the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris.
The Harvard dissertation remained unfinished when Pierre Trudeau briefly entered a doctoral program to study under the socialist economist Harold Laski at the London School of Economics.
Pierre Trudeau was influenced by Nikolai Berdyaev, particularly his book Slavery and Freedom.
Pierre Trudeau used his British passport instead of his Canadian passport in his travels through Pakistan, India, China, and Japan, often wearing local clothing to blend in.
When he returned to Montreal in 1949, Pierre Trudeau quickly became a leading figure opposing Duplessis's rule.
Pierre Trudeau actively supported the workers in the Asbestos Strike who opposed Duplessis in 1949.
Pierre Trudeau was the co-founder and editor of Cite Libre, a dissident journal that helped provide the intellectual basis for the Quiet Revolution.
Pierre Trudeau wrote in his memoirs that he found this period very useful later on, when he entered politics, and that senior civil servant Norman Robertson tried unsuccessfully to persuade him to stay on.
An associate professor of law at the Universite de Montreal from 1961 to 1965, Pierre Trudeau's views evolved towards a liberal position in favour of individual rights counter to the state and made him an opponent of Quebec nationalism.
Pierre Trudeau admired the labour unions, which were tied to the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation, and tried to infuse his Liberal party with some of their reformist zeal.
In 1963, Pierre Trudeau criticized the Liberal Party of Lester Pearson when it supported arming Bomarc missiles in Canada with nuclear warheads.
Pierre Trudeau was offered a position at Queen's University teaching political science by James Corry, who later became principal of Queen's, but turned it down because he preferred to teach in Quebec.
In 1965, Pierre Trudeau joined the Liberal party, along with his friends Gerard Pelletier and Jean Marchand.
Pierre Trudeau himself was elected in the safe Liberal riding of Mount Royal, in Montreal.
Pierre Trudeau would hold this seat until his retirement from politics in 1984, winning each election with large majorities.
Pierre Trudeau doubted the feasibility of the centralizing policies of the party.
Pierre Trudeau felt that the party leadership tended toward a "deux nations" approach he could not support.
Pierre Trudeau famously defended the segment of the bill decriminalizing homosexual acts by telling reporters that "there's no place for the state in the bedrooms of the nation", adding that "what's done in private between adults doesn't concern the Criminal Code".
Pierre Trudeau paraphrased the term from Martin O'Malley's editorial piece in The Globe and Mail on December 12,1967.
Pierre Trudeau liberalized divorce laws, and clashed with Quebec Premier Daniel Johnson, Sr.
Nevertheless, at the April 1968 Liberal leadership convention, Pierre Trudeau was elected leader on the fourth ballot, with the support of 51 percent of the delegates.
Pierre Trudeau defeated several prominent and long-serving Liberals, including Paul Martin Sr.
Pierre Trudeau defended vigorously the newly implemented universal health care and regional development programmes, as well as the recent reforms found in the Omnibus bill.
The next day, Pierre Trudeau handily won the 1968 election with a strong majority government; this was the Liberals' first majority since 1953.
Pierre Trudeau's Cabinet fulfilled Part IV of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism's report by announcing a "Multiculturalism Policy" on October 8,1971.
The White Paper prompted the first major national mobilization of Indian and Aboriginal activists against the federal government's proposal, leading to Pierre Trudeau setting aside the legislation.
Five days later Quebec Labour Minister Pierre Trudeau Laporte was kidnapped.
Pierre Trudeau presented a determined public stance during the crisis, answering the question of how far he would go to stop the violence by saying "Just watch me".
Pierre Trudeau faced increasing challenges in Quebec, starting with bitter relations with Bourassa and his Liberal government in Quebec.
Pierre Trudeau responded with increasing anger at what he saw as nationalist provocations against the Federal government's bilingualism and constitutional initiatives, at times expressing his personal contempt for Bourassa.
Pierre Trudeau's reserve was seen as dignified by contemporaries and his poll numbers actually rose during the height of coverage, but aides felt the personal tensions left him uncharacteristically emotional and prone to outbursts.
Pierre Trudeau was well known for running large budget deficits throughout his tenure.
Pierre Trudeau's government introduced a capital gains tax in the 1971 federal budget.
On September 4,1973, Pierre Trudeau requested Western Canadian provinces to agree to a voluntary freeze on oil prices during the ongoing Arab oil embargo.
Nine days after, the Pierre Trudeau government imposed a 40-cent tax on every barrel of Canadian oil exported to the United States to combat rising inflation and oil prices.
In foreign affairs, Pierre Trudeau kept Canada in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, but often pursued an independent path in international relations.
Halstead stated that Pierre Trudeau viewed foreign policy as "only for dabbing", saying he much preferred domestic affairs.
However, Pierre Trudeau made it clear that he did not want an intensified Cold War as a result of the invasion, and worked to avoid a rupture with Moscow.
Pierre Trudeau himself noted during a speech given before the National Press Club during the same visit that the United States was by far Canada's largest trading partner, saying: "Living next to you is in some way like sleeping with an elephant; no matter how friendly and even-tempered the beast, one is affected by every twitch and grunt".
The diplomat Marcel Cadieux accused Pierre Trudeau of being "ne semble pas croire du tout au danger sovietique".
In late March 1969, Pierre Trudeau's cabinet was torn by debate as ministers divided into pro-NATO and anti-NATO camps, and Pierre Trudeau's own feelings were with the latter.
The Defence Minister Leo Cadieux threatened to resign in protest if Canada did leave NATO, leading Pierre Trudeau who wanted to keep a French-Canadian in a high-profile portfolio such as the Defence department, to meet Cadieux on 2 April 1969 to discuss a possible compromise.
Ultimately, the fact the United States would be more favourably disposed to a Canada in NATO and the need to maintain cabinet unity led Pierre Trudeau to decide, despite his own inclinations, to stay in NATO.
On January 4,1973, Pierre Trudeau voted for a resolution in the House of Commons that condemned the American Christmas bombings against North Vietnam between 18 and 29 December 1972.
Pierre Trudeau continued his attempts at increasing Canada's international profile, including joining the G7 group of major economic powers in 1976 at the behest of US President Gerald Ford.
Britain's decision in 1973 to join the European Economic Community as the European Union was then known, confirmed Pierre Trudeau's view that the United Kingdom was a declining power that had little to offer Canada while the way that Japan had replaced Britain as Canada's second-largest trading partner was taken as further confirmation of these views.
However, Pierre Trudeau was attached to the Commonwealth, believing it was an international body that allowed Canada to project influence in the Third World as he noted it was one of the few bodies that allowed leaders from the First World and the Third World to meet on a regular basis.
In what was described as a "no holds-barred" style, Pierre Trudeau told Heath that the British arms sales to white supremacist South Africa were threatening the unity of the Commonwealth.
At a Commonwealth summit in Singapore between 14 and 22 January 1971, Pierre Trudeau argued that apartheid was not sustainable in the long run given that the black population of South Africa vastly outnumbered the white population, and it was extremely myopic for Britain to be supporting South Africa, given that majority rule in South Africa was inevitable.
However, Pierre Trudeau worked for a compromise to avoid a split in the Commonwealth, arguing that the Commonwealth needed to do more to pressure South Africa to end apartheid peacefully, saying that a "race war" in South Africa would be the worse possible way to end apartheid.
Pierre Trudeau had an especially close friendship with the Social Democratic West German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt, whom he greatly liked both for his left-wing politics and as a practical politician who was more concerned about getting things done rather than with ideological questions.
Pierre Trudeau hoped would be the Framework Agreement would be the first step towards a Canadian-EEC free trade agreement, but the EEC proved to be uninterested in free trade with Canada.
Pierre Trudeau established Canadian diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China before the United States did in 1979, and went on an official visit to Beijing.
On 10 February 1969, the government announced its wish to establish diplomatic relations with the People's Republic, and Pierre Trudeau was mortified when the Chinese refused to respond at first, which made him look foolish.
Pierre Trudeau expected the negotiations to be a mere formality, but relations were not finally established until October 1970.
In October 1973, Pierre Trudeau visited Beijing to meet Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, where Pierre Trudeau was hailed as "old friend"-a term of high approval in China.
In 1976, Pierre Trudeau, succumbing to pressure from the Chinese government, issued an order barring Taiwan from participating as China in the 1976 Montreal Olympics, although technically it was a matter for the IOC.
Pierre Trudeau's Foreign Policy for Canadians white paper of April 1968 had declared that "social justice" in South Africa was a key priority, but much to the dismay of anti-apartheid activists, Pierre Trudeau never imposed sanctions on South Africa.
Pierre Trudeau was often criticized for his "duplicity" on South Africa as he criticized apartheid, but refused to impose sanctions on South Africa.
Pierre Trudeau saw Begin's speech as interference in Canada's internal politics, and came to develop what was described as a "really passionate hatred" of Begin.
Pierre Trudeau was known as a friend of Fidel Castro, the leader of Cuba.
Pierre Trudeau did press Castro in private to pull his troops out of Angola, only for Castro to insist that Cuba would pull its forces out of Angola only when South Africa likewise pulled its forces out of not only Angola, but Southwest Africa as well.
On September 1,1972, over four years into the Liberals' five-year mandate, Pierre Trudeau called an election for October 30.
In May 1974, the House of Commons passed a motion of no confidence in the Pierre Trudeau government, defeating its budget bill after Pierre Trudeau intentionally antagonized Stanfield and Lewis.
Pierre Trudeau finally did so in 1979, only two months from the five-year limit provided under the British North America Act.
The traditional Liberal rally at Maple Leaf Gardens saw Pierre Trudeau stressing the importance of major constitutional reform to general ennui, and his campaign "photo-ops" were typically surrounded by picket lines and protesters.
Pierre Trudeau soon announced his intention to resign as Liberal Party leader and favoured Donald Macdonald to be his successor.
The Liberal caucus, along with friends and advisers persuaded Pierre Trudeau to stay on as leader and fight the election, with Pierre Trudeau's main impetus being the upcoming referendum on Quebec sovereignty.
The first challenge Pierre Trudeau faced upon re-election was the May 20,1980 Quebec referendum on Quebec sovereignty, called by the Parti Quebecois government under Rene Levesque.
Pierre Trudeau immediately initiated federal involvement in the referendum, reversing the Clark government's policy of leaving the issue to the Quebec Liberals and Claude Ryan.
Pierre Trudeau appointed Jean Chretien as the nominal spokesman for the federal government, helping to push the "Non" cause to working-class voters who tuned out the intellectual Ryan and Trudeau.
Pierre Trudeau promised a new constitutional agreement should Quebec decide to stay in Canada, in which English-speaking Canadians would have to listen to valid concerns made by the Quebecois.
Pierre Trudeau was backed by the NDP, Ontario Premier Bill Davis, and New Brunswick Premier Richard Hatfield and was opposed by the remaining premiers and PC leader Joe Clark.
At the meeting, Pierre Trudeau reached an agreement with nine of the premiers on patriating the constitution and implementing the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, with the caveat that Parliament and the provincial legislatures would have the ability to use a notwithstanding clause to protect some laws from judicial oversight.
The notable exception was Levesque, who, Pierre Trudeau believed, would never have signed an agreement.
On February 29,1984, a day after what he described as a walk through the snowy streets of Ottawa, Pierre Trudeau announced he would not lead the Liberals into the next election.
Pierre Trudeau was frequently known to use the term "walk in the snow" as a trope; he claimed to have taken a similar walk in December 1979 before deciding to take the Liberals into the 1980 election.
Pierre Trudeau was succeeded by John Turner, a former Cabinet minister under both Trudeau and Lester Pearson.
Pierre Trudeau advised Governor General Jeanne Sauve to appoint over 200 Liberals to patronage positions.
Pierre Trudeau joined the Montreal law firm Heenan Blaikie as counsel and settled in the historic Maison Cormier in Montreal following his retirement from politics.
Pierre Trudeau wrote and spoke out against both the Meech Lake Accord and Charlottetown Accord proposals to amend the Canadian constitution, arguing that they would weaken federalism and the Charter of Rights if implemented.
Pierre Trudeau claimed in his speeches that giving Quebec the constitutional status of a "distinct society" would lead to the Quebec government deporting members of Quebec's English-speaking minority.
Pierre Trudeau continued to speak against the Parti Quebecois and the sovereignty movement with less effect.
Pierre Trudeau remained active in international affairs, visiting foreign leaders and participating in international associations such as the Club of Rome.
Pierre Elliott Trudeau died on September 28,2000, and was buried in the Trudeau family crypt, St-Remi-de-Napierville Cemetery, Saint-Remi, Quebec.
Pierre Trudeau's body lay in state in the Hall of Honour in Parliament Hill's Centre Block to allow Canadians to pay their last respects.
Pierre Trudeau was a Roman Catholic and attended Mass throughout his life.
Pierre Trudeau frequently displayed the logic and love of argument consistent with that tradition.
Pierre Trudeau studied philosophy under Dominican Father Louis-Marie Regis and remained close to him throughout his life, regarding Regis as "spiritual director and friend".
Pierre Trudeau meditated regularly after being initiated into Transcendental Meditation by the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi.
Pierre Trudeau took retreats at Saint-Benoit-du-Lac, Quebec and regularly attended Hours and the Eucharist at Montreal's Benedictine community.
On March 4,1971, while Prime Minister, Pierre Trudeau quietly married 22-year-old Margaret Sinclair, who was 29 years younger, at St Stephen's Roman Catholic parish church in North Vancouver.
When his divorce was finalized in 1984, Pierre Trudeau became the first Canadian Prime Minister to become a single parent as the result of divorce.
In 1984, Pierre Trudeau was romantically involved with Margot Kidder in the last months of his prime-ministership and after leaving office.
In 1991, Pierre Trudeau became a father again, with Deborah Margaret Ryland Coyne, to his only daughter, Sarah.
Pierre Trudeau began practising judo sometime in the mid-1950s when he was in his mid-thirties, and by the end of the decade, he was ranked ikkyu.
Pierre Trudeau began the night of his famous "walk in the snow" before announcing his retirement in 1984 by going to judo with his sons.
Pierre Trudeau was a strong advocate for a federalist model of government in Canada, developing and promoting his ideas in response and contrast to strengthening Quebec nationalist movements, for instance the social and political atmosphere created during Maurice Duplessis' time in power.
Pierre Trudeau noted the ostensible conflict between socialism, with its usually strong centralist government model, and federalism, which expounded a division and cooperation of power by both federal and provincial levels of government.
Pierre Trudeau pointed out that in sociological terms, Canada is inherently a federalist society, forming unique regional identities and priorities, and therefore a federalist model of spending and jurisdictional powers is most appropriate.
Many politicians still use the term "taking a walk in the snow", the line Pierre Trudeau used to describe how he arrived at the decision to leave office in 1984.
Bilingualism is one of Pierre Trudeau's most lasting accomplishments, having been fully integrated into the Federal government's services, documents, and broadcasting.
Pierre Trudeau's vision was to see Canada as a bilingual confederation in which all cultures would have a place.
The Charter of Rights and Freedoms was one of Pierre Trudeau's most enduring legacies.
Bennett in 1970 argued that Pierre Trudeau's government is Quebec nationalist-oriented.
Pierre Trudeau implied that Quebec received special treatment from Ottawa as a result.
Pierre Trudeau is credited by many for the defeat of the 1980 Quebec referendum.
At the federal level, Pierre Trudeau faced almost no strong political opposition in Quebec during his time as Prime Minister.
Pierre Trudeau is a 2002 television miniseries which aired on CBC Television.
Pierre Trudeau chose the following jurists to be appointed as justices of the Supreme Court of Canada by the Governor General:.
Pierre Trudeau received several Honorary Degrees in recognition of his political career.
Pierre Trudeau was appointed a Companion of the Order of Canada on June 24,1985.
The first, Pierre Trudeau, depicts his years as Prime Minister.