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13 Facts About 1848 revolutions
Many of the 1848 revolutions were quickly suppressed, as tens of thousands of people were killed, and many more were forced into exile.
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Peasant grievances exploded during the revolutionary year of 1848 revolutions, yet were often disconnected from urban revolutionary movements: the revolutionary Sandor Petofi's popular nationalist rhetoric in Budapest did not translate into any success with the Magyar peasantry, while the Viennese democrat Hans Kudlich reported that his efforts to galvanize the Austrian peasantry had "disappeared in the great sea of indifference and phlegm".
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Hungarian revolution of 1848 revolutions was the longest in Europe, crushed in August 1849 by Austrian and Russian armies.
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Belgium did not see major unrest in 1848 revolutions; it had already undergone a liberal reform after the Revolution of 1830 and thus its constitutional system and its monarchy survived.
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The European 1848 revolutions erupted at a moment when the political regime in Spain faced great criticism from within one of its two main parties, and by 1854 a radical-liberal revolution and a conservative-liberal counter-revolution had both occurred.
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For nationalists, 1848 revolutions was the springtime of hope, when newly emerging nationalities rejected the old multinational empires, but the end results were not as comprehensive as many had hoped.
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Nicholas I's rule in Russia after 1848 revolutions was particularly repressive, marked by an expansion of the secret police and stricter censorship; there were more Russians working for censorship organs than actual books published in the period immediately after 1848 revolutions.
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The Revolutions of 1848 were followed by new centrist coalitions dominated by liberals nervous of the threat of working-class socialism, as seen in the Piedmontese Connubio under Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour.
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Governments after 1848 revolutions were forced into managing the public sphere and popular sphere with more effectiveness, resulting in the increased prominence of the Prussian Zentralstelle fur Pressangelegenheiten, the Austrian Zensur-und polizeihofstelle, and the French Direction Generale de la Librairie .
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