39 Facts About Adrianus IV


Adrianus IV then travelled to Avignon, in the south, where he joined St Ruf.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,480

Adrianus IV travelled to Rome several times, where he appears to have caught the attention of Pope Eugene III, and was sent on a mission to Catalonia where the Reconquista was attempting to reclaim land from the Muslim Al-Andalus.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,481

Adrianus IV was unable to complete his coronation service because of the parlous state of politics in Rome, which at the time was a den of 'heresy' and republicanism.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,482

Adrianus IV was up against powerful forces out of his control, which, while he never overcame them, he managed effectively.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,483

Adrianus IV called another council, this time at Linkoping, which reorganised the Swedish church under the Archbishop of Lund .

FactSnippet No. 1,360,484

Adrianus IV received permission from the Swedish monarchy to introduce Peter's pence and to reduce the influence of the lay community on the church generally.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,485

Adrianus IV's visit to Sweden was recorded by contemporary chroniclers and published in the 13th century.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,486

Adrianus IV successfully introduced a new Scandinavian tythe—the denarium sancti Petri, or payment to St Peter—a financial acknowledgement by the Scandinavian church of Papal primacy.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,487

Adrianus IV's son was less interested than his father in the minutiae of government, and when Roger died in 1154 they took advantage of the new king and rebelled.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,488

Adrianus IV's election, said Boso, "happened—not without divine council—that they unanimously agreed" on Adrian.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,489

Adrianus IV was one of the few popes of his era who did not need consecrating on his election, as he was already a bishop.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,490

Adrianus IV took the name Adrian IV, possibly in honour of Adrian I, who revered St Alban and first granted the abbey of that name its privileges.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,491

Adrianus IV threatened to place the city under interdict for protecting Arnold, whom the hierarchy condemned as a heretic.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,492

Adrianus IV followed through with this threat following the beating of one of his cardinals Norwich has called this "an act of breath-taking courage", considering that Adrian was a foreign Pope of only a few weeks' tenure, who "knew the city and its increasingly xenophobic inhabitants hardly at all and was able to rely on little or no popular support".

FactSnippet No. 1,360,493

Adrianus IV took advice from councillors based on records of "the more ancient princes and especially those who had come with King Lothar to Pope Innocent".

FactSnippet No. 1,360,494

Adrianus IV did not further perform as Adrian hoped, and did not defend the Papacy.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,495

Adrianus IV was particularly averse to Manuel's suggestion that the pope's sword was merely a spiritual force, and, suggests Ullmann, "received Manuel's overtures with that scepticism which they deserved".

FactSnippet No. 1,360,496

Adrianus IV was effectively captured and forced to come to terms at Benevento three weeks later.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,497

Adrianus IV'storians have disagreed as to the degree of deliberation behind the use of the word.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,498

Adrianus IV was thus in constant danger of relying on mistranslations, and it is possible that this happened at Besancon.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,499

Adrianus IV wrote to Roger, Archbishop of York two months after Adrian's election confirming the Papal Legates in their offices.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,500

Adrianus IV confirmed the primacy of the Archbishop of York over Scottish bishops and his independence from the Archbishop of Canterbury.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,501

Adrianus IV granted papal protection—"free and immune from all subjection except to the Roman pontiff"—to Scottish towns, such as that of Kelso in 1155.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,502

Adrianus IV confirmed the degradation of Baume Abbey imposed by Eugenius for its failure to obey a Papal legate.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,503

Adrianus IV enforced the rules against unfree ecclesiastical elections and condemned ecclesiastics who used physical force against the church.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,504

Adrianus IV was keen to defend its church against lay encroachment.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,505

Adrianus IV did not approve of Crusading within Christendom itself, as when the French and English kings both proposed a crusade into Muslim Spain, he urged caution upon them.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,506

Adrianus IV was a traditionalist; a firm follower of Pope Gregory VII, Adrian believed it his duty to not just believe in those ideals, but to enforce them.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,507

Adrianus IV believed in the necessity of reform, as his clarification of the marriage sacrament and enforcement of free episcopal elections demonstrates.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,508

Adrianus IV was, like Eugenius had been before him, a firm believer in the supremacy of the Bishops of Rome over both the Empire and other churches, writing how the Papacy,.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,509

Adrianus IV was very kind, mild, and patient; accomplished in English and Latin, fluent in speech, polished in eloquence.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,510

Adrianus IV maintains that the papal throne is studded with thorns, that his mantle bristles with needles so sharp that it oppresses and weighs down the broadest shoulders.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,511

Adrianus IV's increasing control over Rome and the Patrimony demonstrate that he was an effective organiser and administrator, argues the scholar Edward Whalen.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,512

Adrianus IV died, says Norwich, "as many Popes had died before him, an embittered exile; and when death came to him, he welcomed it as a friend".

FactSnippet No. 1,360,513

Adrianus IV was buried three days later in an "undistinguished third-century sarcophagus" porphyry tomb of his own choosing.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,514

Adrianus IV described the body, still well preserved, as that of an "undersized man, wearing Turkish slippers on his feet and, on his hand, a ring with a large emerald", and dressed in a dark Chasuble.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,515

Adrianus IV did not have time to judge the request of Scottish Legates who had been in Rome since that summer, who were requesting the Diocese of St Andrews be made a metropolitan, and the beatification of Waltheof of Melrose.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,516

Adrianus IV was a tougher pope than his two immediate predecessors, says Wickham and his was an "extremely formative" Papacy, says Sayers, and his policy of reform was a legacy taken up again by reforming popes of the 13th century.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,517

Adrianus IV had granted it privileges of such breadth and grandeur—which were confirmed by his successors—that they caused rancour and jealousy in the English church.

FactSnippet No. 1,360,518