Awadh, known in British historical texts as Avadh or Oudh, is a region and proposed state in the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, which was before independence known as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.
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Presently, Awadh geographically includes the districts of Ambedkar Nagar, Bahraich, Balrampur, Barabanki, Basti, Siddharth Nagar, Faizabad, Gonda, Lakhimpur Kheri, Sitapur, Hardoi, Lucknow, Pratapgarh, Raebareli, Amethi, Shravasti, Jaunpur, Bhadohi, Sultanpur, Unnao, Fatehpur, Kaushambi, Allahabad, Kanpur, Kanpur Dehat, Etawah, Auraiya and Kannauj from Lower Doab.
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The title of Subehdar of Awadh is mentioned as early as 1280 AD, but it can only have denoted the governor of the tract of the country above defined.
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Saadat Khan, the first Nawab of Awadh, laid the foundation of Faizabad at the outskirt of ancient city of Ayodhya.
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Suja-ud-daula, the third Nawab of Awadh, built a fort known as Chhota Calcutta, now in ruins.
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Nawabs of Awadh were a Persian Shia Muslim dynasty from Nishapur, who not only encouraged the existing Persian-language belle-lettrist activity to shift from Delhi, but invited, and received, a steady stream of scholars, poets, jurists, architects, and painters from Iran.
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Awadh's successor was Safdarjung the very influential noble at the Mughal court in Delhi.
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Until 1819, Awadh was a province of the Mughal Empire administered by a Nawab.
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Awadh was comprehensively defeated in the Battle of Buxar by the British East India Company, after which he was forced to pay heavy penalties and cede parts of his territory.
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Awadh's rule saw the building of the Asafi Imambara and Rumi Darwaza, built by Raja Tikait Rai Nawab Wazir of Awadh, which till date are the biggest architectural marvels in the city.
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Region of Awadh is considered to be the center of Ganga-Jamuni culture.
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Sham-e-Awadh is a popularised term referring to the "glorious evenings" in the Awadh capitals of Faizabad and later Lucknow.
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Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula's son Nawab Asaf-ud-Daula, the fourth Nawab of Awadh, shifted the capital from Faizabad to Lucknow; this led to the decline of Faizabad and rise of Lucknow.
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