45 Facts About Delhi Sultanate


Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of South Asia for 320 years.

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Foundation of the Delhi Sultanate was laid by the Ghurid conqueror Muhammad Ghori who routed the Rajput Confederacy led by Ajmer ruler Prithviraj Chauhan in 1192 near Tarain, after suffering a reverse against them earlier.

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Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate drew the Indian subcontinent more closely into international and multicultural Islamic social and economic networks.

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Delhi Sultanate sought to carve out a principality for himself and expand the Islamic world.

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Delhi Sultanate's rule was challenged a number of times, such as by Qubacha, and this led to a series of wars.

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Delhi Sultanate attacked, defeated, and executed Taj al-Din Yildiz, who asserted his rights as heir to Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori.

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Delhi Sultanate was succeeded by 17-year-old Muiz ud-Din Qaiqabad, who appointed Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khalji as the commander of the army.

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Delhi Sultanate came to power after the Khalji revolution which marked the transfer of power from the monopoly of Turkic nobles to a heterogeneous Indo-Muslim nobility.

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Delhi Sultanate was around 70 years old at the time of his ascension, and was known as a mild-mannered, humble and kind monarch to the general public.

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Delhi Sultanate's military campaigning returned to these lands as well other south Indian kingdoms after he assumed power.

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Delhi Sultanate's commanders collected war spoils and paid ghanima, which helped strengthen the Khalji rule.

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Delhi Sultanate grew to eventually distrust the majority of his nobles and favored only a handful of his own slaves and family.

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In 1298, between 15, 000 and 30, 000 Mongols near Delhi Sultanate, who had recently converted to Islam, were slaughtered in a single day, due to a mutiny during an invasion of Gujarat.

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Delhi Sultanate is known for his cruelty against kingdoms he defeated in battle.

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Delhi Sultanate was of "humble origins" but generally considered of a mixed Turko-Punjabi people.

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Delhi Sultanate was deeply suspicious of his kinsmen and wazirs, extremely severe with his opponents, and took decisions that caused economic upheaval.

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Delhi Sultanate ordered a forced migration of the Muslim population of Delhi, including his royal family, the nobles, Syeds, Sheikhs and 'Ulema to settle in Daulatabad.

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Delhi Sultanate saw their role as propagandists who would adapt Islamic religious symbolism to the rhetoric of empire, and that the Sufis could by persuasion bring many of the inhabitants of the Deccan to become Muslim.

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Delhi Sultanate was succeeded by Firuz Shah Tughlaq, who tried to regain the old kingdom boundary by waging a war with Bengal for 11 months in 1359.

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Delhi Sultanate's reign attempted to stabilize the food supply and reduce famines by commissioning an irrigation canal from the Yamuna river.

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Delhi Sultanate wrote that he did not tolerate attempts by Rafawiz Shia Muslim and Mahdi sects from proselytizing people into their faith, nor did he tolerate Hindus who tried to rebuild temples that his armies had destroyed.

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Delhi Sultanate vastly expanded the number of slaves in his service and those of Muslim nobles.

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The last rulers of this dynasty both called themselves Sultan from 1394 to 1397: Nasir ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughlaq, the grandson of Firuz Shah Tughlaq who ruled from Delhi Sultanate, and Nasir ud-Din Nusrat Shah Tughlaq, another relative of Firuz Shah Tughlaq who ruled from Firozabad, which was a few miles from Delhi Sultanate.

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Delhi Sultanate looted the lands he crossed, then plundered and burnt Delhi.

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The people and lands within the Delhi Sultanate were left in a state of anarchy, chaos, and pestilence.

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Delhi Sultanate was a Khokhar chieftain who travelled to Samarkand and profited from the contacts he made with the Timurid society The Timurid invasion and plunder had left the Delhi Sultanate in shambles, and little is known about the rule by the Sayyid dynasty.

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Delhi Sultanate's successor was Mubarak Khan, who renamed himself Mubarak Shah and unsuccessfully tried to regain lost territories in Punjab from Khokhar warlords.

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Delhi Sultanate moved his capital and court from Delhi to Agra, an ancient Hindu city that had been destroyed during the plunder and attacks of the early Delhi Sultanate period.

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Medieval scholars such as Isami and Barani suggested that the prehistory of the Delhi Sultanate lay in the Ghaznavid state and that its ruler, Mahmud Ghaznavi, provided the foundation and inspiration integral in the making of the Delhi regime.

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The Delhi Sultanate continued the governmental conventions of the previous Hindu polities, claiming paramountcy of some of its subjects rather than exclusive supreme control.

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Economic policy of the Delhi Sultanate was characterized by greater government involvement in the economy relative to the Classical Hindu dynasties, and increased penalties for private businesses that broke government regulations.

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Delhi Sultanate enforced Islamic religious prohibitions of anthropomorphic representations in art.

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The army of the Alai era of the Delhi Sultanate had an Indian military style of warfare which had replaced the Ilbari Mamluk style.

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Major military contribution of the Delhi Sultanate was their successful campaigns in repelling the Mongol Empire's invasions of India, which could have been devastating for the Indian subcontinent, like the Mongol invasions of China, Persia and Europe.

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Many historians argue that the Delhi Sultanate was responsible for making India more multicultural and cosmopolitan.

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Delhi Sultanate period coincided with a greater use of mechanical technology in the Indian subcontinent.

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Hindustani language began to emerge in the Delhi Sultanate period, developed from the Middle Indo-Aryan apabhramsha vernaculars of North India.

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Important Qutb Complex in Delhi Sultanate was begun under Muhammad of Ghor, by 1199, and continued under Qutb al-Din Aibak and later sultans.

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Delhi Sultanate's Firoz Shah Palace Complex at Delhi Sultanate'sar, Haryana is a ruin, but parts are in fair condition.

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Delhi Sultanate was buried in the large Hauz Khas Complex in Delhi, with many other buildings from his period and the later Sultanate, including several small domed pavilions supported only by columns.

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Delhi Sultanate noted there were many instances of Delhi sultans, who often had Hindu ministers, ordering the protection, maintenance and repairing of temples, according to both Muslim and Hindu sources.

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In many cases, the demolished remains, rocks and broken statue pieces of temples destroyed by Delhi Sultanate sultans were reused to build mosques and other buildings.

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For example, the Qutb complex in Delhi Sultanate was built from stones of 27 demolished Hindu and Jain temples by some accounts.

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For example, a proposal by the Chinese to repair Himalayan Buddhist temples destroyed by the Delhi Sultanate army was refused, on the grounds that such temple repairs were only allowed if the Chinese agreed to pay jizya tax to the treasury of the Delhi Sultanate.

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Armies of Delhi Sultanate led by Muslim Commander Malik Kafur plundered the Meenakshi Temple and looted it of its valuables.

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