Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada.
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Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada.
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Between 1534 and 1763, Quebec was called Canada and was the most developed colony in New France.
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Furthermore, unlike elsewhere in Canada, law in Quebec is mixed: private law is exercised under a civil-law system, while public law is exercised under a common-law system.
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The economy of Quebec is mainly supported by its large service sector and varied industrial sector.
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Quebec is well known for producing maple syrup, for its comedy, and for making hockey one of the most popular sports in Canada.
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Name Quebec comes from an Algonquin word meaning 'narrow passage' or 'strait'.
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In 1629, Quebec surrendered, without battle, to English privateers led by David Kirke during the Anglo-French War; in 1632, the English king agreed to return the lands with the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
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In 1909, the government passed a law obligating wood and pulp to be transformed in Quebec, which helped slow the Grande Hemorragie by allowing Quebec to export its finished products to the US instead of its labour force.
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However, the Quebec government did not recognize the ruling of this council, resulting in a boundary dispute which remains ongoing.
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Quebec focused on defending provincial autonomy, Quebec's Catholic and francophone heritage, and laissez-faire liberalism instead of the emerging welfare state.
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In 1960, the Liberal Party of Quebec was brought to power with a two-seat majority, having campaigned with the slogan "" .
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In 1962, the government of Quebec nationalized its electricity and dismantled the financial syndicates of Saint Jacques Street.
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Quiet Revolution was particularly characterized by the 1962 Liberal Party's slogan "", which, to the Anglo-American conglomerates that dominated the economy and natural resources of Quebec, announced a collective will for freedom of the French-Canadian people.
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That year, Option Quebec sparked a constitutional debate on the political future of the province by pitting federalist and sovereignist doctrines against each other.
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Between 1966 and 1969, the Estates General of French Canada confirmed the state of Quebec to be the nation's fundamental political milieu and for it to have the right to self-determination.
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The Unity Rally, a controversial event paid for by sponsors outside Quebec, supporting the "no" side, took place on the eve of the referendum.
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Between 2020 and 2021, Quebec took measures to protect itself against the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Quebec's topography is very different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, and the proximity to water.
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In general, the climate of Quebec is cold and humid, with variations determined by latitude, maritime and elevation influences.
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Quebec is divided into four climatic zones: arctic, subarctic, humid continental and East maritime.
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The northern regions of Quebec have an arctic climate, with very cold winters and short, much cooler summers.
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Sea and semi-aquatic birds seen in Quebec are mostly the Canada goose, the double-crested cormorant, the northern gannet, the European herring gull, the great blue heron, the sandhill crane, the Atlantic puffin and the common loon.
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Quebec is founded on the Westminster system, and is both a liberal democracy and a constitutional monarchy with parliamentary regime.
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The head of government in Quebec is the premier, who leads the largest party in the unicameral National Assembly from which the Executive Council of Quebec is appointed.
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Quebec has 78 members of Parliament in the House of Commons of Canada.
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Quebec State holds administrative and police authority in the areas of exclusive jurisdiction.
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Quebec's territory is divided into 17 administrative regions as follows:.
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Quebec is the only Canadian province that has set up a ministry to exclusively embody the state's powers for international relations.
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Since 2006, Quebec has adopted a green plan to meet the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol regarding climate change.
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The Societe des etablissements de plein air du Quebec is the main body responsible for the management of national parks and wildlife reserves.
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Agriculture in Quebec has been subject to agricultural zoning regulations since 1978.
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When it comes to taxation, Revenu Quebec takes the majority of its revenue through a progressive income tax, a 9.
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Immigration to Quebec is supported by integration programs favouring French, as it is the common language, as well as the principles of pluralism and interculturalism.
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Part of the reason for this is the relative democratization of higher education implemented during the Quiet Revolution, when the Quebec government froze tuition fees to a relatively low level and created CEGEPs.
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Quebec has a historied relationship with the United Kingdom, having been a part of the British Empire.
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Quebec has a representative to UNESCO and participates in the Organization of American States.
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Quebec is a member of the Assemblee parlementaire de la Francophonie and of the Organisation internationale de la francophonie.
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Quebec law is the shared responsibility of the federal and provincial government.
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Quebec law is influenced by two judicial traditions and four classic sources of law .
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Private law in Quebec affects all relationships between individuals and is largely under the jurisdiction of the Parliament of Quebec.
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The Court of Quebec is the main criminal trial court, and a court for small civil claims.
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The Surete du Quebec can serve a support and coordination role with other police forces, such as with municipal police forces or with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police .
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Municipal police, such as the Service de police de la Ville de Montreal and the Service de police de la Ville de Quebec, are responsible for law enforcement in their municipalities.
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Quebec is responsible for operating the prison system for sentences of less than two years, and the federal government operates penitentiaries for sentences of two years or more.
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In 2019, Quebec witnessed an increase in the number of births compared to the year before and had a replacement rate of about 1.
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Quebec's economy has traditionally been fuelled by abundant natural resources and a well-developed infrastructure, but has undergone significant change over the past decade.
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In 2011, Quebec experienced faster growth of its research-and-development spending than other Canadian provinces.
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Thanks to the World Trade Organization and the North American Free Trade Agreement, Quebec was, as of 2009, experiencing an increase in its ability to compete on the international market.
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In 2008, Quebec imported $178 billion worth of goods and services, or 58.
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Quebec produces most of Canada's hydroelectricity and is the second biggest hydroelectricity producer in the world .
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The public company Hydro-Quebec occupies a dominant position in the production, transmission and distribution of electricity in Quebec.
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Hydro-Quebec operates 63 hydroelectric power stations and 28 large reservoirs.
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Quebec is the second most important province for tourism in Canada, receiving 21.
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Quebec is considered one of world leaders in fundamental scientific research, having produced ten Nobel laureates in either physics, chemistry, or medicine.
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Quebec has contributed to the creation of some Canadian artificial satellites including SCISAT-1, ISIS, Radarsat-1 and Radarsat-2.
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All universities in Quebec exist by virtue of laws adopted by the National Assembly of Quebec in 1967 during the Quiet Revolution.
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Various other transport networks crisscross the province of Quebec, including hiking trails, snowmobile trails and bike paths.
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Quebec has approximately 140 hospitals for general or specialised care .
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Quebec has other types of establishments in its healthcare system, such as Centre local de services communautaires, Centre d'hebergement et de soins de longue duree, Centre de readaptation and Centre de protection de l'enfance et de la jeunesse.
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Quebec has developed its own unique culture from its historic New France roots.
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The Conseil des arts et des lettres du Quebec is an initiative of the Ministry of Culture and Communications .
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The Prix du Quebec is an award given by the government to confer the highest distinction and honour to individuals demonstrating exceptional achievement in their respective cultural field.
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The National Circus School and the Ecole de cirque de Quebec were created to train future Contemporary circus artists.
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Quebec has created and is home to several different comedy festivals, including the Just for Laughs festival in Montreal, as well as the Grand Rire festivals of Quebec, Gatineau and Sherbrooke.
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The Association of Film and Television in Quebec promotes independent production in film and television.
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Quebec's French-speaking populace has the second largest body of folktales in Canada .
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Almost all of the stories native to Quebec were influenced by Christian dogma and superstitions.
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From New France, Quebec literature was first developed in the travel accounts of explorers.
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The regional novel from Quebec is called Terroir novel and is a literary tradition specific to the province.
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Art of Quebec has developed around the specific characteristics of its landscapes and cultural, historical, social and political representations.
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Quebec's cuisine has been influenced by learning from First Nation, by English cuisine and by American cuisine.
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Quebec is most famous for its Tourtiere, Pate Chinois, Poutine, St Catherine's taffy among others.
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Quebec has hosted several major sporting events, including the 1976 Summer Olympics, the Fencing World Championships in 1967, track cycling in 1974, and the Transat Quebec-Saint-Malo race created in 1984.
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Quebec athletes have performed well at the Winter Olympics over recent years.
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In 1977, the Quebec Parliament declared June 24, the day of, to be Quebec's National Holiday.
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In 1939, the government of Quebec unilaterally ratified its coat of arms to reflect Quebec's political history: French rule, followed by British rule, followed by Canadian rule .
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The fleur-de-lis, one of Quebec's most common symbols, is an ancient symbol of the French monarchy.
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Finally, the Great Seal of Quebec is used to authenticate documents issued by the government of Quebec.
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