15 Facts About Yishuv


The Old Yishuv refers to all the Jews living in the Land of Israel before the first Zionist immigration wave of 1882, and to their descendants who kept the old, non-Zionist way of life until 1948.

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The Old Yishuv residents were religious Jews, living mainly in Jerusalem, Safed, Tiberias, and Hebron.

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Term New Yishuv refers to those who adopted a new approach, based on economic independence and various national ideologies, rather than strictly religious reasons for settling in the "Holy Land".

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Old Yishuv were the Jewish communities of southern Ottoman Syria in the Ottoman Empire, up to the onset of Zionist aliyah and the consolidation of the New Yishuv by the end of World War I in 1918 and the establishment of the British Mandate for Palestine.

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The Old Yishuv had continuously resided in or had come to Eretz Yisrael in the earlier centuries and were largely ultra-Orthodox Jews dependent on external donations for living, as opposed to the later Zionist aliyah and the New Yishuv, who was more socialist-leaning and secular, emphasizing labor and self-sufficiency.

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Old Yishuv developed after a period of severe decline in Jewish communities of the Southern Levant during the early Middle Ages, and was composed of three clusters.

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The Old Yishuv was thus generally divided into two independent communities – the Sephardi Jews, mainly constituting the remains of Jewish communities of Galilee and the Four Holy Cities of Judaism, which had flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; and the Ashkenazi Jews, whose immigration from Europe was primarily since the 18th century.

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Petah Tikva, although established in 1878 by the Old Yishuv, nevertheless was supported by the arriving Zionists.

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The Yishuv relied on money from abroad to support their settlements.

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The Yishuv feared such an institution due to the Arab majority, but none was created in the end due to the Arabs' refusal to cooperate with the Jews or British.

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In 1919 the first nationwide women's party in the New Yishuv was created, and Rosa Welt-Straus, who had immigrated there that year, was appointed its leader, as which she continued until her death.

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Yishuv wanted to help their fellow Jews, who were being murdered by the Nazis in Europe.

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Yishuv wanted to help on the front lines in Europe to try to save Jews from the Nazi atrocities.

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In 1942 the Jewish agency turned to the British to offer their assistance by sending Jewish volunteers to Europe as emissaries of the Yishuv to organize local resistance and rescue operations among the Jewish communities.

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The Yishuv attacked anyway, resulting in 91 deaths, 28 of who were British and 17 who were Palestinian Jews.

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