Manchuria is an exonym for a historical and geographic region in Northeast Asia encompassing the entirety of present-day Northeast China and parts of the Russian Far East .
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Manchuria is often referred to as the "Chinese rust belt", due to the shrinking cities that used to be the center of China's heavy industry and natural resource mining, but today face increasing economic decline.
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The name Manju was invented and given to the Jurchen people by Hong Taiji in 1635 as a new name for their ethnic group; however, the name "Manchuria" was never used by the Manchus or the Qing dynasty itself to refer to their homeland.
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However, the term Manchuria started appearing by the end of the century; French missionaries used it as early as 1800.
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The area of Manchuria was then converted into three provinces by the late Qing government in 1907.
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Climate of Manchuria has extreme seasonal contrasts, ranging from humid, almost tropical heat in summer to windy, dry, Arctic cold in winter.
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Manchuria was the homeland of several ethnic groups, including Manchu, Mongols, Koreans, Nanai, Nivkhs, Ulchs, Hui and possibly Turkic peoples and ethnic Han Chinese in southern Manchuria.
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Early Manchuria had a mixed economy of hunting, fishing, livestock, and agriculture.
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Inner Manchuria came under strong Russian influence with the building of the Chinese Eastern Railway through Harbin to Vladivostok.
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Manchuria was an important region due to its rich natural resources including coal, fertile soil, and various minerals.
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For pre–World War II Japan, Manchuria was an essential source of raw materials.
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Owen Lattimore reported that during his January 1930 visit to Manchuria, he studied a community in Jilin, where both Manchu and Chinese Bannermen were settled at a town called Wulakai, and eventually the Chinese Bannermen there could not be differentiated from Manchus since they were effectively Manchufied .
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Under Japanese control, Manchuria was brutally run, with a systematic campaign of terror and intimidation against the local populations including arrests, organised riots and other forms of subjugation.
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