30 Facts About Mediterranean Sea


Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

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The Mediterranean Sea has played a central role in the history of Western civilization.

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The Mediterranean Sea encompasses a vast number of islands, some of them being of volcanic origin.

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Mediterranean Sea was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times, facilitating trade and cultural exchange between peoples of the region.

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The history of the Mediterranean Sea region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies.

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Westernmost point of the Mediterranean is located at the transition from the Alboran Sea to the Strait of Gibraltar, the easternmost point is on the coast of the Gulf of Iskenderun in southeastern Turkey.

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The northernmost point of the Mediterranean Sea is on the coast of the Gulf of Trieste near Monfalcone in northern Italy while the southernmost point is on the coast of the Gulf of Sidra near the Libyan town of El Agheila.

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Typical Mediterranean Sea climate has hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters.

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International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Mediterranean Sea as follows: Stretching from the Strait of Gibraltar in the west to the entrances to the Dardanelles and the Suez Canal in the east, the Mediterranean Sea is bounded by the coasts of Europe, Africa, and Asia and is divided into two deep basins:.

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Drainage basin of the Mediterranean Sea is particularly heterogeneous and extends much further than the Mediterranean region.

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Mediterranean Sea encompasses about 10, 000 islands and islets, of which about 250 are permanently inhabited.

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The Mediterranean Sea is characterised and immediately recognised by its deep blue colour.

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Water circulation in the Mediterranean can be attributed to the surface waters entering from the Atlantic through the Strait of Gibraltar.

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Deep water formation in the Mediterranean Sea is triggered by strong winter convection fueled by intense cold winds like the Bora.

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The residence time of water in the Mediterranean Sea is approximately 100 years, making the Mediterranean Sea especially sensitive to climate change.

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The stratification and warming have already led to the eastern Mediterranean Sea to become a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere notably during summer.

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In spite of its great biodiversity, concentrations of chlorophyll and nutrients in the Mediterranean Sea are very low, making it one of the most oligotrophic ocean regions in the world.

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However, the Mediterranean Sea has an average N:P between 24 and 29, which translates a widespread phosphorus limitation.

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Almost complete enclosure of the Mediterranean basin has enabled the oceanic gateways to dominate seawater circulation and the environmental evolution of the sea and basin.

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The shift to a "Mediterranean Sea climate" occurred largely within the last three million years as summer rainfall decreased.

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The subtropical laurel forests retreated; and even as they persisted on the islands of Macaronesia off the Atlantic coast of Iberia and North Africa, the present Mediterranean Sea vegetation evolved, dominated by coniferous trees and sclerophyllous trees and shrubs with small, hard, waxy leaves that prevent moisture loss in the dry summers.

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Since the Mediterranean Sea is subject to the deposition of eolian dust from the Sahara during dry periods, whereas riverine detrital input prevails during wet ones, the Mediterranean Sea marine sapropel-bearing sequences provide high-resolution climatic information.

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Unlike the vast multidirectional ocean currents in open oceans within their respective oceanic zones; biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea is that of a stable one due to the subtle but strong locked nature of currents which affects favourably, even the smallest macroscopic type of volcanic life form.

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The Alboran Sea has the largest population of bottlenose dolphins in the Western Mediterranean, is home to the last population of harbour porpoises in the Mediterranean, and is the most important feeding grounds for loggerhead sea turtles in Europe.

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The wide ecological diversity typical of Mediterranean Sea Europe is predominantly based on human behaviour, as it is and has been closely related to human usage patterns.

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The Red Sea is higher than the Eastern Mediterranean, so the canal functions as a tidal strait that pours Red Sea water into the Mediterranean.

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The Red Sea is generally saltier and more nutrient-poor than the Atlantic, so the Red Sea species have advantages over Atlantic species in the salty and nutrient-poor Eastern Mediterranean.

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The Barcelona Convention aims to 'reduce pollution in the Mediterranean Sea and protect and improve the marine environment in the area, thereby contributing to its sustainable development.

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Coast of the Mediterranean Sea has been used for tourism since ancient times, as the Roman villa buildings on the Amalfi Coast or in Barcola show.

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Naval and rescue components in the Mediterranean Sea are considered to be among the best due to the rapid cooperation between various naval fleets.

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