43 Facts About Trieste


Trieste is a city and seaport in northeastern Italy.

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Trieste belonged to the Habsburg monarchy from 1382 until 1918.

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Trieste underwent an economic revival during the 1930s, and the Free Territory of Trieste became a major site of the struggle between the Eastern and Western blocs after the Second World War.

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Trieste, a deep-water port, is a maritime gateway for northern Italy, Germany, Austria and Central Europe.

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Since the 1960s, Trieste has emerged as a prominent research location in Europe because of its many international organizations and institutions.

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Trieste has the highest percentage of researchers in Europe in relation to population.

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Territory of Trieste is composed of several different climate zones depending on the distance from the sea and elevation.

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Trieste area is divided into 8a–10a zones according to USDA hardiness zoning; Villa Opicina with 8a in upper suburban area down to 10a in especially shielded and windproof valleys close to the Adriatic sea.

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Trieste is administratively divided in seven districts, which in turn are further subdivided into parishes :.

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In 539, the Byzantines annexed it to the Exarchate of Ravenna, despite Trieste's being briefly taken by the Lombards in 567, during their invasion of northern Italy, it was held until the time of the coming of the Franks.

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In 788, Trieste submitted to Charlemagne, who placed it under the authority of their count-bishop who in turn was under the Duke of Friuli.

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Trieste was saved from utter ruin by the intervention of Pope Pius II who had previously been bishop of Trieste.

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Trieste was fortunate to be spared another sack in 1470 by the Ottomans who burned the village of Prosecco, only about 5.

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From 1809 to 1813, Trieste was annexed into Illyrian Provinces, interrupting its status of free port and losing its autonomy.

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Trieste was regarded as a martyr by radical Irredentists, but as a cowardly villain by the supporters of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy.

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At the beginning of the 20th century, Trieste was a bustling cosmopolitan city frequented by artists and philosophers such as James Joyce, Italo Svevo, Sigmund Freud, Zofka Kveder, Dragotin Kette, Ivan Cankar, Scipio Slataper, and Umberto Saba.

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Trieste became nominally part of the newly constituted Italian Social Republic, but it was de facto ruled by Germany, who created the Operation Zone of the Adriatic Littoral out of former Italian north-eastern regions, with Trieste as the administrative centre.

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In 1947, Trieste was declared an independent city state under the protection of the United Nations as the Free Territory of Trieste.

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From 1947 to 1954, Zone A was occupied and governed by the Allied Military Government, composed of the American "Trieste United States Troops", commanded by Major General Bryant E Moore, the commanding general of the American 88th Infantry Division, and the "British Element Trieste Forces", commanded by Sir Terence Airey, who were the joint forces commander and the military governors.

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In 1954, in accordance with the Memorandum of London, the vast majority of Zone A—including the city of Trieste—joined Italy, whereas Zone B and four villages from Zone A became part of Yugoslavia, divided between Slovenia and Croatia.

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The economy of Trieste fell into a decline after the city's annexation to Italy at the end of World War I But Fascist Italy promoted a huge development of Trieste in the 1930s, with new manufacturing activities related even to naval and armament industries .

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The Port of Trieste is a trade hub with a significant commercial shipping business, busy container and oil terminals, and steel works.

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Prominent companies from Trieste include: AcegasApsAmga, Adriatic Assicurazioni SpA Autamarocchi SpA, Banca Generali SpA, Genertel, Genertellife, HERA Trading, Illy, Italia Marittima, Modiano, Nuovo Arsenale Cartubi Srl, Jindal Steel and Power Italia SpA; Pacorini SpA, Siderurgica Triestina, TBS Groug, U-blox, Telit, and polling and marketing company SWG.

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University of Trieste, founded in 1924, is a medium-size state-supported institution with 12 faculties, and boasts a wide and almost complete range of courses.

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Trieste has the highest proportion of researchers in Europe in relation to the population.

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Trieste is a hub for corporate training and skills development hosting, among others, Generali's Generali Academy and Illy's Universita del Caffe, founded in 1999.

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Trieste had lost roughly ? of its population since the 1970s, due to the crisis of the historical industrial sectors of steel and shipbuilding, a dramatic drop in fertility rates and fast population ageing.

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Average age of Trieste residents is 46 compared to the Italian average of 42.

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In 1911, Trieste was the 4th largest city in the Austro-Hungarian Empire .

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In 1921, Trieste was the 8th largest city in the country, in 1961 the 12th largest, in 1981 the 14th largest, while in 2011 it dropped to the 15th place.

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Trieste is predominantly Roman Catholic, but has large numbers of Orthodox Christians, mainly Serbs.

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Particular dialect of Trieste, called tergestino, spoken until the beginning of the 19th century, was gradually overcome by the Triestine dialect of Venetian and other languages, including standard Italian, Slovene, and German.

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Castello Miramare, or Miramare Castle, on the waterfront 8 kilometres from Trieste, was built between 1856 and 1860 from a project by Carl Junker working under Archduke Maximilian.

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One of the best running routes in Trieste leads from the port in Barcola along the sea to Miramare Castle and back.

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Literary-intellectual center of Trieste was or is the existing "Libreria Antiquaria Umberto Saba" corner Via Dante Alighieri in the house Via San Nicolo No 30, in which James Joyce lived, the house Via San Nicolo No 32, in which the Berlitz School was located where James Joyce taught and came in contact with Italo Svevo, and the house at Via San Nicolo No 31, where Umberto Saba spent his breaks in the former cafe-milk shop Walter.

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Trieste is notable for having had two football clubs participating in the championships of two different nations at the same time during the period of the Free Territory of Trieste, due to the schism within the city and region created by the post-war demarcation.

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Trieste has been portrayed on screen a number of times, with films often shot on location.

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Cinematic interest in Trieste peaked during the height of the "Free Territory" era between 1947 and 1954, with international films such as Sleeping Car to Trieste and Diplomatic Courier portraying it as a hotbed of espionage.

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Today the port of Trieste is one of the largest Italian ports and next to Gioia Tauro the only deep water port in the central Mediterranean for seventh generation container ships.

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The first railroad line to reach Trieste was the Sudbahn, launched by the Austrian government in 1857.

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In recent years, Trieste was chosen to host a number of high level bilateral and multilateral meetings such as: the Western Balkans Summit in 2017;the Italo-Russian Bilateral Summit in 2013 and the Italo-German Bilateral Summit in 2008 ; the G8 meetings of Foreign Affairs and Environment Ministers respectively in 2009 and 2001.

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In December 2020, Trieste hosted three-party talks between the foreign ministers of Italy, Croatia, and Slovenia on the delimitation of their respective exclusive economic zone.

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In 2020, Trieste served as the European Science Capital selected by Euroscience.

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