53 Facts About Austria


Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a landlocked country in the southern part of Central Europe, lying in the Eastern Alps.

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Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a popularly elected president as head of state and a chancellor as head of government and chief executive.

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Austria is consistently listed as one of the richest countries in the world by GDP per capita and one of the countries with the highest standard of living; it was ranked 25th in the world for its Human Development Index in 2021.

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Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and of the European Union since 1995.

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The word "Austria" is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century.

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Central European land that is Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes.

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Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.

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Austria's reign came to an end with his defeat at Durnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278.

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Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was largely that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.

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In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund.

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Austria participated, together with Prussia and Russia, in the first and the third of the three Partitions of Poland.

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From that time, Austria became the birthplace of classical music and played host to different composers including Ludwig van Beethoven, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn and Franz Schubert.

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Austria later became engaged in a war with Revolutionary France, at the beginning highly unsuccessfully, with successive defeats at the hands of Napoleon, meaning the end of the old Holy Roman Empire in 1806.

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In 1814, Austria was part of the Allied forces that invaded France and brought to an end the Napoleonic Wars.

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Yet, the government of Austria tried its best to be accommodating in some respects: for example, the Reichsgesetzblatt, publishing the laws and ordinances of Cisleithania, was issued in eight languages; and all national groups were entitled to schools in their own language and to the use of their mother tongue at state offices.

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The loan meant that Austria passed from an independent state to the control exercised by the League of Nations.

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Austria announced a referendum on 9 March 1938, to be held on 13 March, concerning Austria's independence from Germany.

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Austria established a plebiscite which confirmed the union with Germany in April 1938.

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On 12 March 1938, Austria was annexed by the Third Reich and it ceased to exist as an independent country.

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At that time, Adolf Eichmann, who grew up in Austria, was transferred to Vienna and ordered to persecute the Jews.

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Austria spoke out against the Anschluss and was then wanted by the Nazi regime and his property would have been expropriated and he would have been shot immediately if he were caught.

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Much like Germany, Austria was divided into American, British, French, and Soviet zones and governed by the Allied Commission for Austria.

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On 26 October 1955, after all occupation troops had left, Austria declared its "permanent neutrality" by an act of parliament.

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In reality, Austria is taking part in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy, participates in peacekeeping and peace creating tasks, and has become a member of NATO's "Partnership for Peace"; the constitution has been amended accordingly.

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Parliament of Austria is located in Vienna, the country's capital and most populous city.

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Austria became a federal, representative democratic republic through the Federal Constitution of 1920.

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Austria continued governing in a "grand coalition" with the conservative People's Party.

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Austria took the office after former chancellor, from SPO, Werner Faymann's resignation.

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On 26 October 1955, the Federal Assembly passed a constitutional article in which "Austria declares of her own free will her perpetual neutrality.

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Austria began to reassess its definition of neutrality following the fall of the Soviet Union, granting overflight rights for the UN-sanctioned action against Iraq in 1991, and since 1995, it has developed participation in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy.

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Austria signed the UN's Nuclear Weapon Ban Treaty, which was opposed by all NATO members.

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Austria is a largely mountainous country because of its location in the Alps.

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The Alps of western Austria give way somewhat into low lands and plains in the eastern part of the country.

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Phytogeographically, Austria belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom.

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Austria had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 3.

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Germany has historically been the main trading partner of Austria, making it vulnerable to rapid changes in the German economy.

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Since Austria became a member state of the European Union, it has gained closer ties to other EU economies, reducing its economic dependence on Germany.

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Austria indicated on 16 November 2010 that it would withhold the December installment of its contribution to the EU bailout of Greece, citing the material worsening of the Greek debt situation and the apparent inability of Greece to collect the level of tax receipts it had previously promised.

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In 2007, Austria ranked 9th worldwide in international tourism receipts, with 18.

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Austria currently produces more than half of its electricity by hydropower.

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Austria had the 14th oldest population in the world in 2020, with the average age of 44.

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Statistics Austria estimates that nearly 10 million people will live in the country by 2080.

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Austria was part of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation until its ending in 1806 and had been part of the German Confederation, a loose association of 39 separate German-speaking countries, until the Austro-Prussian war in 1866, which resulted in the exclusion of Austria from the German Confederation and the creation of the North German Confederation led by Prussia.

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Austria was the birthplace of many famous composers such as Joseph Haydn, Michael Haydn, Franz Liszt, Franz Schubert, Anton Bruckner, Johann Strauss Sr.

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Austria is generally regarded as one of the greatest conductors of the 20th century, and he was a dominant figure in European classical music from the 1960s until his death.

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Austria was the cradle of numerous scientists with international reputation.

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Austria was home to Sigmund Freud, founder of psychoanalysis, Alfred Adler, founder of Individual psychology, psychologists Paul Watzlawick and Hans Asperger, and psychiatrist Viktor Frankl.

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Austria was ranked 18th in the Global Innovation Index in 2021, up from 21st in 2019.

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Austria's cuisine is derived from that of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

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Austria is famous for its Mozartkugeln and its coffee tradition.

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Austria was among the most successful football playing nations on the European continent placing 4th at the 1934 FIFA World Cup, 3rd at the 1954 FIFA World Cup and 7th at the 1978 FIFA World Cup.

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Austria is currently the only driver to have been champion for both Ferrari and McLaren, the sport's two most successful constructors.

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Austria won the 1995 French Open and in 1996 he was ranked number 1 in the ATP ranking.

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