30 Facts About Austro-Hungarian Empire


Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Dual Monarchy, or Austria, was a constitutional monarchy and great power in Central Europe between 1867 and 1918.

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The Austro-Hungarian Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry in the world, after the United States, Germany and the United Kingdom.

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Austro-Hungarian Empire relied increasingly on a cosmopolitan bureaucracy—in which Czechs played an important role—backed by loyal elements, including a large part of the German, Hungarian, Polish and Croat aristocracy.

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The northern part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar was under de facto joint occupation during that period, but the Austro-Hungarian Empire army withdrew as part of their annexation of Bosnia.

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Administrative system in the Austrian Austro-Hungarian Empire consisted of three levels: the central State administration, the territories, and the local communal administration.

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Austro-Hungarian Empire was appointed by the Emperor at the advise of the Austrian Prime Minister and had his own small administrative office.

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Austro-Hungarian Empire was thus under the dual supervision of the monarch and the prime minister, appointed by the former at the advise of the latter and could be dismissed in the same manner or at the Emperor's own discretion.

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Austro-Hungarian Empire hated Prussia's leader, Otto von Bismarck, who had repeatedly outmaneuvered him.

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Austro-Hungarian Empire turned down an Ottoman proposal for an alliance that would include Austria, Turkey and Romania.

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Largest shipyard in the dual monarchy and a strategic asset for the Austro-Hungarian Empire Navy was the Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino in Trieste, founded in 1857 by Wilhelm Strudthoff.

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In Western Europe only Germany had more extended railway network ; the Austro-Hungarian Empire was followed by France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Spain .

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The Austro-Hungarian Empire Navy became much more significant than previously, as industrialization provided sufficient revenues to develop it.

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Austro-Hungarian Empire Army was under the command of Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen, an old-fashioned bureaucrat who opposed modernization.

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The military system of the Austro-Hungarian Empire monarchy was similar in both states, and rested since 1868 upon the principle of the universal and personal obligation of the citizen to bear arms.

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Austro-Hungarian Empire navy was mainly a coast defence force, and included a flotilla of monitors for the Danube.

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Austro-Hungarian Empire did not trust in the Italian alliance, due to the political aftermath of the Second Italian War of Independence.

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Austro-Hungarian Empire thought that even a successful Austro-Hungarian war would be disastrous for the integrity of Kingdom of Hungary, where Hungary would be the next victim of Austrian politics.

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Austro-Hungarian Empire played a relatively passive diplomatic role in the war, as it was increasingly dominated and controlled by Germany.

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The Austro-Hungarian Empire depended on agriculture, and agriculture depended on the heavy labor of millions of men who were now in the Army.

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Furthermore, the political instability of the multiple ethnic groups of Austro-Hungarian Empire now ripped apart any hope for national consensus in support of the war.

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Increasingly there was a demand for breaking up the Austro-Hungarian Empire and setting up autonomous national states based on historic language-based cultures.

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Furthermore, the Austro-Hungarian Empire had more industrialized economy and higher GDP per capita than the Kingdom of Italy, which was economically the far most developed actual opponent of the Empire.

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Morale fell every year, and the diverse nationalities gave up on the Austro-Hungarian Empire and looked for ways to establish their own nation states.

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The Austro-Hungarian Empire Army was defeated at the Battle of Lemberg and the great fortress city of Przemysl was besieged and fell in March 1915.

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The operational capability of the Austro-Hungarian Empire army was seriously affected by supply shortages, low morale and a high casualty rate, and by the army's composition of multiple ethnicities with different languages and customs.

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In spite of this, the Austro-Hungarian Empire then withdrew from all defeated countries due to its dire economic condition, as well as signs of impeding disintegration.

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At the last Italian offensive, the Austro-Hungarian Army took to the field without any food and munition supply and fought without any political supports for a de facto non-existent empire.

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Austro-Hungarian Empire monarchy collapsed with dramatic speed in the autumn of 1918.

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The multiethnic Austro-Hungarian Empire started to disintegrate, leaving its army alone on the battlefields.

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Austro-Hungarian Empire dismissed Lammasch and his government from office and released the officials in the Austrian half of the empire from their oath of loyalty to him.

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