36 Facts About Croatia


On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, and the War of Independence was successfully fought over the subsequent four years.

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Croatia is classified by the World Bank as a high-income economy and ranks highly on the Human Development Index.

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Croatia provides social security, universal health care, and tuition-free primary and secondary education while supporting culture through public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.

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Croatia's name derives from Medieval Latin, itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *X?rwate, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *X?rvat? which possibly comes from the 3rd-century Scytho-Sarmatian form attested in the Tanais Tablets as ????a???.

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The Latin term Chroatorum is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir I of Croatia, dated to 852 in a 1568 copy of a lost original, but it is not certain if the original was indeed older than the Branimir inscription.

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Croatia had a large palace built in Split, to which he retired after abdicating in AD 305.

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Ottoman advances in Croatia continued until the 1593 Battle of Sisak, the first decisive Ottoman defeat, when borders stabilised.

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Some of the Serbs in Croatia left Sabor and declared the autonomy of the unrecognised Republic of Serbian Krajina, intent on achieving independence from Croatia.

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On 15 January 1992, Croatia gained diplomatic recognition by the European Economic Community, followed by the United Nations.

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The remaining occupied areas were restored to Croatia following the Erdut Agreement of November 1995, concluding with the UNTAES mission in January 1998.

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Croatia joined the Partnership for Peace on 25 May 2000 and became a member of the World Trade Organization on 30 November 2000.

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On 29 October 2001, Croatia signed a Stabilisation and Association Agreement with the European Union, submitted a formal application for the EU membership in 2003, was given the status of candidate country in 2004, and began accession negotiations in 2005.

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In December 2011, Croatia completed EU accession negotiations and signed an EU accession treaty on 9 December 2011.

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Croatia was affected by the 2015 European migrant crisis when Hungary's closure of borders with Serbia pushed over 700, 000 refugees and migrants to pass through Croatia on their way to other countries.

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Croatia is situated in Central and Southeast Europe, on the coast of the Adriatic Sea.

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Croatia can be subdivided into ecoregions based on climate and geomorphology.

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Croatia has four types of biogeographical regions—the Mediterranean along the coast and in its immediate hinterland, Alpine in most of Lika and Gorski Kotar, Pannonian along Drava and Danube, and Continental in the remaining areas.

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In terms of phytogeography, Croatia is a part of the Boreal Kingdom and is a part of Illyrian and Central European provinces of the Circumboreal Region and the Adriatic province of the Mediterranean Region.

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Croatia had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 4.

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The most famous protected area and the oldest national park in Croatia is Plitvice Lakes National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

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Republic of Croatia is a unitary, constitutional state using a parliamentary system.

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Croatia has a civil law legal system in which law arises primarily from written statutes, with judges serving as implementers and not creators of law.

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Croatia was first divided into counties in the Middle Ages.

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Northwest Croatia includes Koprivnica-Krizevci, Krapina-Zagorje, Medimurje, Varazdin, the city of Zagreb, and Zagreb counties and the Central and Eastern Croatia includes the remaining areas—Bjelovar-Bilogora, Brod-Posavina, Karlovac, Osijek-Baranja, Pozega-Slavonia, Sisak-Moslavina, Virovitica-Podravina, and Vukovar-Syrmia counties.

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Croatia has unpolluted marine areas with nature reserves and 116 Blue Flag beaches.

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Croatia has an extensive rail network spanning 2, 722 kilometres, including 984 kilometres (611 miles) of electrified railways and 254 kilometres (158 miles) of double track railways.

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The most significant railways in Croatia are within the Pan-European transport corridors Vb and X connecting Rijeka to Budapest and Ljubljana to Belgrade, both via Zagreb.

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Croatia subsequently has one of the world's oldest populations, with an average age of 43.

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Primary education in Croatia starts at the age of six or seven and consists of eight grades.

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The University of Zadar, the first university in Croatia, was founded in 1396 and remained active until 1807, when other institutions of higher education took over until the foundation of the renewed University of Zadar in 2002.

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Croatia was ranked 42th in the Global Innovation Index in 2021.

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In 2020, Croatia ranked 41st in the world in life expectancy with 76.

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In 2019, Croatia had 95 professional theatres, 30 professional children's theatres, and 51 amateur theatres visited by more than 2.

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Croatia ranked 64th in the 2019 Press Freedom Index report compiled by Reporters Without Borders which noted that journalists who investigate corruption, organised crime or war crimes face challenges and that the Government was trying to influence the public broadcaster HRT's editorial policies.

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Croatia was almost exclusively a wine-consuming country up until the late 18th century when a more massive beer production and consumption started.

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Croatia hosted several major sports competitions, including the 2009 World Men's Handball Championship, the 2007 World Table Tennis Championships, the 2000 World Rowing Championships, the 1987 Summer Universiade, the 1979 Mediterranean Games, and several European Championships.

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