74 Facts About Serbia


Continuously inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the territory of modern-day Serbia faced Slavic migrations in the 6th century, establishing several regional states in the early Middle Ages at times recognised as tributaries to the Byzantine, Frankish and Hungarian kingdoms.

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In 2008, representatives of the Assembly of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community while Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.

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Serbia is an upper-middle income economy, ranked 64th in the Human Development Index domain.

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White Serbs, an early Slavic tribe from White Serbia eventually settled in an area between the Sava river and the Dinaric Alps.

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Christianization of Serbia was a gradual process, finalized by the middle of the 9th century.

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Between 1166 and 1371, Serbia was ruled by the Nemanjic dynasty, under whom the state was elevated to a kingdom in 1217, and an empire in 1346, under Stefan Dusan.

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Likewise, Serbia was one of the first nations in the Balkans to abolish feudalism.

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In 1876, Serbia declared war on the Ottoman Empire, siding with the ongoing Christian uprisings in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Bulgaria.

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From 1815 to 1903, the Principality of Serbia was ruled by the House of Obrenovic, save for the rule of Prince Aleksandar Karadordevic between 1842 and 1858.

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In 1882, Principality of Serbia became the Kingdom of Serbia, ruled by King Milan I The House of Karadordevic, descendants of the revolutionary leader Karadorde Petrovic, assumed power in 1903 following the May Overthrow.

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Serbia, with its campaign, was a major Balkan Entente Power which contributed significantly to the Allied victory in the Balkans in November 1918, especially by helping France force Bulgaria's capitulation.

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Belgrade, the capital of SFR Yugoslavia and SR Serbia, hosted the first Non-Aligned Movement Summit in September 1961, as well as the first major gathering of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe with the aim of implementing the Helsinki Accords from October 1977 to March 1978.

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The 1972 smallpox outbreak in SAP Kosovo and other parts of SR Serbia was the last major outbreak of smallpox in Europe since World War II.

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Serbia was in the 2000s sued on the charges of alleged genocide by neighbouring Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia but in both cases the main charges against Serbia were dismissed.

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Serbia immediately condemned the declaration and continues to deny any statehood to Kosovo.

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Serbia officially applied for membership in the European Union on 22 December 2009, and received candidate status on 1 March 2012, following a delay in December 2011.

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In January and February 2021, Serbia carried the second-fastest vaccine rollout in Europe.

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Landlocked country situated at the crossroads between Central and Southern Europe, Serbia is located in the Balkan peninsula and the Pannonian Plain.

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Elevation ranges from the Midzor peak of the Balkan Mountains at 2, 169 metres (the highest peak in Serbia, excluding Kosovo) to the lowest point of just 17 metres (56 feet) near the Danube river at Prahovo.

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Climate of Serbia is under the influences of the landmass of Eurasia and the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.

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One of the climatic features of Serbia is Kosava, a cold and very squally southeastern wind which starts in the Carpathian Mountains and follows the Danube northwest through the Iron Gate where it gains a jet effect and continues to Belgrade and can spread as far south as Nis.

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Serbia is one of few European countries with very high risk exposure to natural hazards.

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Drina river forms the natural border between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia, and represents the main kayaking and rafting attraction in both countries.

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Serbia is a country of rich ecosystem and species diversity—covering only 1.

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Mountain of Tara in western Serbia is one of the last regions in Europe where bears can still live in absolute freedom.

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Serbia is a parliamentary republic, with the government divided into legislative, executive, and judiciary branches.

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Serbia had one of the first modern constitutions in Europe, the 1835 Constitution, which was at the time considered among the most progressive and liberal constitutions in Europe.

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In 2021, Serbia was the 5th country in Europe by the number of women holding high-ranking public functions.

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Serbia is the fourth modern-day European country, after France, Austria and the Netherlands, to have a codified legal system.

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Serbia has established diplomatic relations with 191 UN member states, the Holy See, the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and the European Union.

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Serbia has a network of 65 embassies and 23 consulates internationally.

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Serbia started the process of joining the EU by signing of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement on 29 April 2008 and officially applied for membership in the European Union on 22 December 2009.

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In protest, Serbia initially recalled its ambassadors from countries that recognised Kosovo's independence.

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Serbia began cooperation and dialogue with NATO in 2006, when the country joined the Partnership for Peace programme and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council.

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Serbia is a major producer and exporter of military equipment in the region.

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Serbia is one of the countries with the largest number of firearms in the civilian population in the world.

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In Serbia, excluding Kosovo, there are 145 municipalities and 29 cities (gradovi), which form the basic units of local self-government.

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The Constitution of Serbia recognizes two autonomous provinces, Vojvodina in the north, and the disputed territory of Kosovo and Metohija in the south, while the remaining area of Central Serbia never had its own regional authority.

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Serbia has been enduring a demographic crisis since the beginning of the 1990s, with a death rate that has continuously exceeded its birth rate.

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Serbia subsequently has one of the oldest populations in the world, with the average age of 43.

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Serbia is one of the European countries with the highest number of registered national minorities, while the province of Vojvodina is recognizable for its multi-ethnic and multi-cultural identity.

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Constitution of Serbia defines it as a secular state with guaranteed religious freedom.

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Bosniaks are the largest Islamic community in Serbia, followed by Albanians; estimates are that around a third of the country's Roma people are Muslim.

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Medical specialists from Serbia have performed a number of operations which have been described as "pioneer works".

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Serbia has an emerging market economy in upper-middle income range.

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Since 2000, Serbia has attracted over $40 billion in foreign direct investment.

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Serbia has very favourable natural conditions for varied agricultural production.

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Serbia is one of the largest provider of frozen fruit to the EU.

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Serbia is world's second largest producer of plums, second largest of raspberries (89, 602 tonnes, second to Poland), it is a significant producer of maize (6.

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Serbia has 14 free economic zones as of September 2017, in which many foreign direct investments are realised.

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Serbia is a net exporter of electricity and importer of key fuels.

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Serbia has an abundance of coal, and significant reserves of oil and gas.

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Serbia has a strategic transportation location since the country's backbone, Morava Valley, represents the easiest land route from continental Europe to Asia Minor and the Near East.

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Serbia is not a mass-tourism destination but nevertheless has a diverse range of touristic products.

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Education in Serbia is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Science.

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Public universities in Serbia are: the University of Belgrade, University of Novi Sad (founded in 1960 and with student body of 42, 489), University of Nis (founded in 1965; 20, 559 students), University of Kragujevac (founded in 1976; 14, 053 students), University of Pristina (located in North Mitrovica), Public University of Novi Pazar as well as three specialist universities – University of Arts, University of Defence and University of Criminal Investigation and Police Studies.

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Serbia was ranked 54th in the Global Innovation Index in 2021, up from 57th in 2019.

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Serbia has a long history of excellence in maths and computer sciences which has created a strong pool of engineering talent, although economic sanctions during the 1990s and chronic underinvestment in research forced many scientific professionals to leave the country.

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Nevertheless, there are several areas in which Serbia still excels such as growing information technology sector, which includes software development as well as outsourcing.

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Serbia is one of the countries with the highest proportion of women in science.

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Centuries straddling the boundaries between East and West, the territory of Serbia had been divided among the Eastern and Western halves of the Roman Empire; then between Byzantium and the Kingdom of Hungary; and in the early modern period between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Empire.

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The Byzantine influence on Serbia was profound, first through the introduction of Eastern Christianity in the Early Middle Ages.

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Serbia was influenced by the Republic of Venice as well, mainly though trade, literature and romanesque architecture.

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Serbia has five cultural monuments inscribed in the list of UNESCO World Heritage: the early medieval capital Stari Ras and the 13th-century monastery Sopocani; the 12th-century Studenica monastery; the Roman complex of Gamzigrad–Felix Romuliana; medieval tombstones Stecci; and finally the endangered Medieval Monuments in Kosovo.

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Under Ottoman occupation, when Serbia was not part of the European Renaissance, the tradition of oral story-telling through epic poetry was inspired by the Kosovo battle and folk tales rooted in Slavic mythology.

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Serbia's is honoured with statues, postage stamps, and the names of streets across Serbia.

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Prominent movie stars in Serbia have left a celebrated heritage in the cinematography of Yugoslavia as well.

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Serbia is ranked 90th out of 180 countries in the 2019 Press Freedom Index report compiled by Reporters Without Borders.

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The most popular sports in Serbia are football, basketball, tennis, volleyball, water polo and handball.

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Serbia is one of the traditional powerhouses of world basketball, as Serbia men's national basketball team have won two World Championships, three European Championships (1995, 1997, and 2001) and two Olympic silver medals (in 1996 and 2016) as well.

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Serbia became the eighth player in history to achieve the Career Grand Slam, the third man to hold all four major titles at once, the first ever to do so on three different surfaces, and the first in the Open Era to achieve a double Career Grand Slam.

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Serbia is one of the leading volleyball countries in the world.

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Serbia's has won a total of five Olympic medals and three World Championship gold medals.

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Serbia has hosted several major sport competitions, including the 2005 Men's European Basketball Championship, 2005 Men's European Volleyball Championship, 2006 and 2016 Men's European Water Polo Championships, 2009 Summer Universiade, 2012 European Men's Handball Championship, and 2013 World Women's Handball Championship.

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