37 Facts About Richard I of England

1. Richard I of England appears in three of Angus Donald's Outlaw Chronicles series of novels based on the legend of Robin Hood.

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2. Richard I of England is one of the main characters in Scott's The Talisman, set during the Third Crusade.

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3. Richard I of England was known as a valiant, competent military leader and individual fighter who was courageous and generous.

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4. Richard I of England produced no legitimate heirs and acknowledged only one illegitimate son, Philip of Cognac.

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5. Richard I of England tried to pull this out in the privacy of his tent but failed; a surgeon called a "butcher" by Howden, removed it, "carelessly mangling" the King's arm in the process.

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6. Richard I of England organised an alliance against Philip, including Baldwin IX of Flanders, Renaud, Count of Boulogne, and his father-in-law King Sancho VI of Navarre, who raided Philip's lands from the south.

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7. Richard I of England was no mere copyist of the models he had seen in the East, but introduced many original details of his own invention into the stronghold".

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8. Richard I of England wrote the song, in French and Occitan versions, to express his feelings of abandonment by his people and his sister.

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9. Richard I of England realised that his return could be postponed no longer since both Philip and John were taking advantage of his absence.

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10. Richard I of England attempted to negotiate with Saladin, but this was unsuccessful.

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11. Richard I of England feared his forces being bottled up in Acre as he believed his campaign could not advance with the prisoners in train.

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12. Richard I of England had kept 2,700 Muslim prisoners as hostages against Saladin fulfilling all the terms of the surrender of the lands around Acre.

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13. Richard I of England gave his support to his Poitevin vassal Guy of Lusignan, who had brought troops to help him in Cyprus.

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14. Richard I of England took his new wife on crusade with him briefly, though they returned separately.

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15. Richard I of England named Richard I of England de Camville and Robert of Thornham as governors.

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16. Richard I of England ordered Isaac to release the prisoners and treasure.

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17. Richard I of England was apparently outbid by a certain Reginald the Italian, but that bid was refused.

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18. Richard I of England spent most of his father's treasury, raised taxes, and even agreed to free King William I of Scotland from his oath of subservience to Richard in exchange for 10,000 marks.

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19. Richard I of England started to raise and equip a new crusader army.

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20. Richard I of England had already taken the cross as Count of Poitou in 1187.

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21. Richard I of England distributed a royal writ demanding that the Jews be left alone.

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22. Richard I of England barred all Jews and women from the investiture, but some Jewish leaders arrived to present gifts for the new king.

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23. Richard I of England felt that Aquitaine was his and that John was unfit to take over the land once belonging to his mother.

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24. Richard I of England was discouraged from renouncing Alys because she was the sister of King Philip II of France, a close ally.

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25. On this campaign, Richard I of England acquired the name "the Lion" or "the Lionheart" due to his noble, brave and fierce leadership.

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26. Richard I of England took refuge in Chateau de Taillebourg for the rest of the war.

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27. Richard I of England went to Poitou and raised the barons who were loyal to himself and his mother in rebellion against his father.

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28. Richard I of England had long arms suited to wielding a sword.

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29. Richard I of England was the younger maternal half-brother of Countess Marie of Champagne and Countess Alix of Blois.

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30. Richard I of England was an elder brother of Duke Geoffrey II of Brittany; Queen Eleanor of Castile; Queen Joan of Sicily; and Count John of Mortain, who succeeded him as king.

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31. Richard I of England remains one of the few kings of England remembered by his epithet, rather than regnal number, and is an enduring iconic figure both in England and in France.

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32. Richard I of England was known in Occitan as Oc e No, because of his reputation for terseness.

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33. Richard I of England was known as Richard Cœur de Lion or Richard the Lionheart because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior.

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34. Richard I of England put the result beyond doubt when reserve scrum-half Richard Wigglesworth released Cokanasiga who charged over before Hartley finished off a driving maul.

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35. Richard I of England were finally ahead, but still looking vulnerable as Jamie Joseph's side put them back in their box.

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36. Richard I of Englandremains one of the few kings of England remembered by his epithet, rather than regnal number, and is an enduring iconic figure both in England and in France.

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37. Richard I of England was King of England from 1189 until his death.

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