463 Facts About Religion

1. Pope Francis confirmed his predecessor John Paul I to be Venerable on 8 November 2017.

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2. Pope Paul VI appointed him simultaneously to several Vatican congregations which resulted in many visits by Montini to Rome in the coming years.

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3. Pope Benedict XVI made only modest changes to the structure of the Roman Curia.

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4. Paul VI became pope of the Roman Catholic Church in 1963.

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5. Coptic Orthodox Pope services take place in the very ancient Coptic language, together with local languages.

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6. The Pope had to make a decree that Native Americans were "rational beings with souls" and not to be enslaved in 1537.

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7. Pope Francis waved at an enthusiastic crowd carrying Vatican flags and banners as he drove into Zayed Sports City Stadium, where an altar with a large cross was set up for the unprecedented open-air service in a country where worship is normally allowed only inside churches.

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8. Pope Paul VI discussed business from his bed about 48 hours after the operation with Cardinal Amleto Cicognani and at that point was off intravenous feeding in favour of orange juice and hot broth.

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9. Pope Francis established two new Secretariats in the Roman Curia: the Secretariat for the Economy, and the Secretariat for Communications.

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10. Pope Francis abolished the €25,000 annual bonus paid to the cardinals serving on the Board of Supervisors for the Vatican bank.

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11. Pope Francis prays before the tombs of unborn babies in a Roman cemetery.

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12. On 26 August 2016, Ollie Pope signed a two-year professional contract with Surrey.

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13. The Pope had to make a decree that Native Americans were "rational beings with souls" and not to be enslaved in 1537.

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14. Pope Pius IX was appalled by the Convention, claiming it left the wolves to guard the sheep.

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15. Pope Benedict XVI has written 66 books, three encyclicals, and three apostolic exhortations.

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16. Pope Paul VI is most remembered for his focus on unity of mankind and world peace.

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17. Pope Paul VI is most remembered for his focus on unity of mankind and world peace.

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18. Pope Benedict XVI stayed there until refurbishment was completed on his retirement home, the Mater Ecclesiae monastery in the Vatican Gardens near St Peter's, formerly home to 12 nuns, where he moved on 2 May 2013.

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19. Pope Pius IX threw himself at the feet of Pius VII, who elevated him and supported his continued theological studies.

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20. Pope Francis chose Francis as his papal name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi.

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21. Pope Julius II was nevertheless the first pope since antiquity to grow facial hair, a practice otherwise forbidden by canon law since the 13th century.

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22. On 24 May 2017, Pope Francis met with US President Donald Trump in Vatican City, where they discussed the contributions of Catholics to the United States and to the world.

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23. Pope Paul VI abolished the Palatine Guard and the Noble Guard, leaving the Swiss Guard as the sole military order of the Vatican.

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24. In October 2014, Pope Francis met for the first time with a delegation of the Old Catholic Church's Bishops' Conference of the Union of Utrecht, led by the Archbishop of Utrecht and President of the International Old Catholic Bishops Conference Joris Vercammen.

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25. Pope Paul VI made extensive contributions to Mariology during his pontificate.

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26. Pope John Paul II accepted his resignation, and placed sanctions on him, prohibiting Paetz from exercising his ministry as bishop.

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27. Pope Julius II sent Cardinal Reginald Pole as legate with powers that he could use at his discretion to help the restoration succeed.

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28. Pope Francis started a day of student celebrations by going to confession.

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29. The Pope had to make a decree that Native Americans were "rational beings with souls" and not to be enslaved in 1537.

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30. Pope John Paul II served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.

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31. Pope Francis attended the technical secondary school Escuela Tecnica Industrial N° 27 Hipolito Yrigoyen, named after a past President of Argentina, and graduated with a chemical technician's diploma.

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32. Pope Paul VI opposed relativistic notions which would have given the Eucharist a symbolic character only.

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33. Pope John Paul II was the first pope ever to visit several countries in one year, starting in 1979 with Mexico and Ireland.

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34. In September 2013, Pope Francis approved the excommunication of Australian priest Greg Reynolds, the first during Francis's papacy.

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35. Pope John Paul II focused on creating original literary work during his first dozen years as a priest.

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36. Pope Pius XII could have lived another 20 years, had he spared himself.

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37. Pope Pius XII still addressed lay people and groups about a wide range of topics.

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38. Pope Francis continued his historic visit to the United Arab Emirates by meeting with Abu Dhabi's crown prince at the presidential palace on Monday.

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39. Paul VI became the first pope to visit five continents.

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40. Pope Benedict XVI was viewed during the time of the Council as a reformer, cooperating with theologians like Hans Kung and Edward Schillebeeckx.

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41. The Pope implored those involved in the conflict to find a peaceful solution.

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42. Pope Pius IX promoted the foundations of Catholic Universities in Belgium and France and supported Catholic associations, with the aim of explaining the faith to non-Catholics.

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43. Pope Paul VI admonished but did not punish those with other views.

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44. Pope Francis calls for better access to clean drinking water.

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45. On 8 December 2017, Pope Francis March signed a new apostolic constitution on ecclesiastical universities and faculties Veritatis gaudium, published 29 January 2018.

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46. Pope Benedict XVI was succeeded by Pope Francis on 13 March 2013, and he moved into the newly renovated monastery Mater Ecclesiae for his retirement on 2 May 2013.

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47. Pope Julius II warned King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain that Alexander was intriguing with the French, which brought an immediate visit of a Spanish ambassador to the Pope.

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48. Pope John Paul II was an outspoken opponent of apartheid in South Africa.

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49. Pope Francis told La Civilta Cattolica that the church does not need to speak constantly of the issues of abortion, artificial contraception, and homosexuality.

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50. Pope Francis maintains that the Church should be more open and welcoming.

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51. The Dalai Lama passed all the tests and was brought to Lhasa but official recognition was delayed until 1822 when he was enthroned and ordained by the Seventh Panchen Lama.

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52. The Dalai Lama studied and taught Buddhism there for the next seven years.

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53. Pope Francis maintains the traditional views of the Church regarding abortion, marriage, ordination of women, and clerical celibacy.

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54. Pope Francis arrived in the Emirati capital late Sunday and was greeted by Abu Dhabi's powerful crown prince, Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan.

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55. Pope Francis starts a three-day visit to the United Arab Emirates on Sunday, the first for a leader of the Roman Catholic Church in the Arabian Peninsula.

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56. Benedict XVI was elected Pope on 19 April 2005, becoming the 265th pope.

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57. Pope Francis is the first pontiff to visit the Arabian peninsula, which is the birthplace of Islam, during a three-day visit to Abu Dabi.

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58. Pope Paul VI rejected notions to instigate revolution and force in changing economic conditions.

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59. Pope Julius II was generally absorbed in deep and silent thought.

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60. Pope Francis says safe drinking water is a human right, not merchandise.

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61. Pope John Paul II called for a ceasefire and condemned the massacres on 10 April and 15 May 1990.

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62. Pope Pius IX recognized that much had to be done and instituted a reform commission in 1851.

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63. On Christmas Eve, Pope Julius II ordered Paris to summon the College of Cardinals and the Sacristan of the Apostolic Palace, quia erat sic infirmus, quod non speraret posse diu supravivere.

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64. On 8 April 2016, Pope Francis published his second apostolic exhortation, Amoris laetitia, remarking on love within the family.

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65. Pope Paul VI seemed to sense more than did many of the reformers that it would not be easy to administer and lead a church in transition to the modern world.

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66. Pope Francis presided over his fifth consistory for the elevation of 14 new cardinals on 28 June 2018.

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67. Pope John Paul II warned that man "giving himself over to relativism and scepticism, goes off in search of an illusory freedom apart from truth itself".

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68. Pope John Paul II repeated this gesture, which he adapted from the French saint Jean Marie Baptiste Vianney, throughout his papacy.

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69. The Pope will fly there by helicopter to meet with 200 youth.

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70. The Pope had to make a decree that Native Americans were "rational beings with souls" and not to be enslaved in 1537.

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71. The Pope presided over a fourth consistory for the elevation of 5 new cardinals on the afternoon of 28 June 2017.

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72. Pope Paul VI reminded the council fathers that only a few years earlier Pope Pius XII had issued the encyclical Mystici corporis about the mystical body of Christ.

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73. Pope Pius IX initially worked as the rector of the Tata Giovanni Institute in Rome.

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74. The Pope was originally chosen by those senior clergymen resident in and near Rome.

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75. Pope John Paul II died in his private apartment at 21:37 CEST of heart failure from profound hypotension and complete circulatory collapse from septic shock, 46 days before his 85th birthday.

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76. Pope Francis was invited by Abu Dhabi's Crown Prince Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed al-Nahyan to take part in an interfaith conference.

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77. The Pope Benedict XVI met with the Maltese youth at the Valletta Waterfront, where an estimated 10,000 young people turned up to greet him.

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78. Pope Francis used his visit to the home to issue a string of appeals, beyond Venezuela.

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79. Pope John Paul II was the first Catholic pope to visit and pray in an Islamic mosque, in Damascus, Syria, in 2001.

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80. Paul VI was the first pope in centuries to meet the heads of various Eastern Orthodox faiths.

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81. The Dalai Lama spent his winters in Lhasa, writing commentaries and the rest of the year travelling and teaching many thousands of monks and lay people.

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82. Pope Francis was speaking before embarking on a historic three-day visit to the United Arab Emirates, the first by a pope to the Arabian peninsula.

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83. Pope Francis met a host of Cabinet ministers in a greeting line, as well as local Catholic and Muslim officials.

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84. Pope Pius IX fought against what he perceived to be anti-Catholic philosophies in countries like Italy, Germany and France.

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85. Benedict XVI was succeeded by Pope Francis on 13 March 2013, and he moved into the newly renovated monastery Mater Ecclesiae for his retirement on 2 May 2013.

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86. Pope Julius II began the attack by excommunicating and deposing Alfonso, the duke of Ferrara, who at the time was allied with France.

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87. Pope Paul VI inaugurated the synod system of consultation of the early Church that Vatican II called for.

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88. Pope Pius XII canonized numerous people, including Pope Pius X—"both were determined to stamp out, as far as possible, all traces of dangerous heterodoxy"—and Maria Goretti.

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89. Pope Paul VI's positions on birth control, promulgated famously in the 1968 encyclical Humanae vitae, were often contested, especially in Western Europe and North America.

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90. The Dalai Lama studied at Drepung and became its abbot but being a non-Tibetan he met with opposition from some Tibetans, especially the Karma Kagyu who felt their position was threatened by these emerging events; there were several attempts to remove him from power.

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91. Benedict XVI is the first pope to resign since Gregory XII in 1415, and the first to do so on his own initiative since Celestine V in 1294.

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92. Pope Francis thinks capitalism is a sin, documentary filmmaker Michael Moore said while speaking with television host Seth Meyers on Thursday.

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93. In December 2014, Pope Francis declined to meet with the 14th Dalai Lama, the 1989 Nobel Peace Prize laureate.

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94. Pope Paul VI showed his belief in and full accord with this concept in a number of ways.

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95. Paul VI was the first pope since the ninth century to visit the East, labelling the Eastern Churches as sister Churches.

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96. On 18 September 1942, Pope Pius XII received a letter from Monsignor Montini, saying, "the massacres of the Jews reach frightening proportions and forms".

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97. The Pope Francis reflected on the shared ecumenical journey of the two churches since their 18th-century schism over the issue of papal primacy.

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98. Pope John Paul II achieved far more in terms of transforming relations with both the Jewish people and the State of Israel than any other figure in the history of the Catholic Church.

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99. On 31 October 2016, Pope Francis March commemorated the 499th anniversary of the Reformation with Lutherans in Sweden.

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100. Pope Julius II began preparing new alliances to drive them from Italy.

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101. Pope Paul VI wished to participate fully in it, to share his sufferings in his own heart and soul.

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102. Pope Benedict XVI is known to be deeply interested in classical music, and is an accomplished pianist.

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103. Pope Benedict XVI has written 66 books, three encyclicals, and three apostolic exhortations.

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104. Pope Francis is travelling to Abu Dhabi to participate in a conference on interreligious dialogue sponsored by the Emirates-based Muslim Council of Elders, an initiative that seeks to counter religious fanaticism by promoting a moderate brand of Islam.

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105. The Pope led by eight points with four matches to go after the Greyhounds' Troy Gable secured a pin in 5:07.

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106. Pope John Paul II specifically named the Kurds, a people who were fighting a civil war against Saddam Hussein's troops in Iraq, as one such people, and referred to the war as a "darkness menacing the earth".

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107. The Pope Pius XII declared determination to work to hasten the return of peace and trust in prayers for justice, love and mercy, to prevail against the scourge of war.

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108. Pope Francis was named provincial superior of the Society of Jesus in Argentina on 31 July 1973 and served until 1979.

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109. Pope Julius II commissioned the rebuilding of St Peter's Basilica, Michelangelo's decoration and full-scale painting of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and his discerning eye in hiring the artist Raphael as a young man brought numerous improvements to the Vatican.

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110. Pope Pius XII included a "pastoral year", an introduction into the practice of parish work.

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111. Pope Francis is making the first-ever trip to the Arabian Peninsula, the birthplace of Islam, in a bid to strengthen ties with the Muslim world.

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112. Pope John Paul II was hospitalised with breathing problems caused by a bout of influenza on 1 February 2005.

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113. In May 2013, Pope Francis said all who do good can be redeemed through Jesus, including atheists.

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114. Pope Benedict XVI views relativism's denial of objective truth, and the denial of moral truths in particular, as the central problem of the 21st century.

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115. Pope Pius IX intervened decisively to alter the procedure of the council on February 20, 1870, and again on April 29.

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116. Pope Francis will be using a popemobile to bless the faithful, allowing a large number of faithful seated outside the Zayed Sports City to see him.

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117. The Dalai Lama made himself known as the tulku of Gendun Gyatso and was formally recognised and enthroned at Drepung in 1546.

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118. Pope John Paul II accepted his resignation, and placed sanctions on him, prohibiting Paetz from exercising his ministry as bishop.

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119. Pope Pius XII took on issues like the uses of medicine in terminally ill persons, medical lies in face of grave illness, and the rights of family members to make decisions against expert medical advice.

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120. Pope Francis celebrated an ecumenical liturgy together with the president of the Lutheran World Federation Bishop Dr Munib Younan.

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121. Pope Pius XII employed the new technology of radio and a series of Christmas messages to preach against selfish nationalism and the evils of modern warfare and offer sympathy to the victims of the war.

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122. Pope Benedict XVI is one of the most important figures of the 20th and early 21st centuries.

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123. Pope Francis said the church was developing a "zero tolerance" policy on abuse and cover-ups.

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124. Pope Pius XII gave a new freedom to engage in theological investigations.

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125. The Pope had to make a decree that Native Americans were "rational beings with souls" and not to be enslaved in 1537.

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126. The Dalai Lama died in meditation at Drepung in 1547 at 67 and his reliquary stupa was constructed at Khyomorlung.

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127. Pope Paul VI wrote that "In case of infirmity, which is believed to be incurable or is of long duration and which impedes us from sufficiently exercising the functions of our apostolic ministry; or in the case of another serious and prolonged impediment", he would renounce his office "both as bishop of Rome as well as head of the same holy Catholic Church".

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128. The Dalai Lama has given reference to a possible vote occurring in the future for all Tibetan Buddhists to decide whether they wish to recognize his rebirth.

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129. The Pope Pius XII offered an interest-free loan without a time limit, according to Chief Rabbi Zolli of Rome.

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130. On 31 March 2013 Pope Francis used his first Easter homily to make a plea for peace throughout the world, specifically mentioning the Middle East, Africa, and North and South Korea.

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131. In November 2015, Pope Francis met with that year's Nobel Peace Prize laureates from Tunisia.

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132. Pope Julius II used his influence to reconcile two powerful Roman families, the Orsini and Colonna.

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133. In December 2014, Pope Francis March declined to meet with the 14th Dalai Lama, the 1989 Nobel Peace Prize laureate.

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134. The Pope reflected that we all have the experience of the weakness of our love.

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135. On 6 September 2006, the Pope Benedict XVI began wearing the red cappello romano, a wide-brimmed hat for outdoor use.

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136. The Pope Pius XII questions whether such efforts of love and sacrifice could nevertheless furnish reasons for lamentation, for pusillanimity, or for the weakening of apostolic courage and zeal.

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137. Benedict XVI had served there as a professor of theology before becoming Pope, and his lecture was entitled "Faith, Reason and the University—Memories and Reflections".

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138. Benedict XVI served his final day as pope on February 28, 2013.

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139. Pope Pius XII was one of only two men known to have served as Camerlengo immediately prior to being elected as pope.

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140. Pope Paul VI is remembered for his ability to connect people around the globe, implement change in adversity, and spread the message of world peace.

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141. John Paul II was the second longest-serving pope in modern history after Pope Pius IX, who served for nearly 32 years from 1846 to 1878.

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142. Pope Pius XII supported the elevation of Americans such as Cardinal Francis Spellman from a minor to a major role in the Church.

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143. On 17 July 2009, Pope Benedict XVI was hospitalized after falling and breaking his right wrist while on vacation in the Alps; his injuries were reported to be minor.

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144. Pope Francis marks World War I centenary with message of peace.

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145. Pope Julius II encouraged trade with the sizeable Turkish community at these ports.

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146. Pope John Paul II performed with various theatrical groups and worked as a playwright.

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147. Pope John Paul II told Rwandan and Burundian refugees that he "was close to them and shared their immense pain".

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148. Pope Benedict XVI called on Catholic communities and organizations to offer them concrete help.

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149. On 29 June 2013, Pope Francis March published his first encyclical, titled Lumen fidei.

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150. Pope Francis was reelected to another three-year term on 11 November 2008.

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151. Pope Francis appointed a commission to advise him about reform of the Bank, and the finance consulting firm Promontory Financial Group was assigned to carry out a comprehensive investigation of all customer contacts of the bank on these facts.

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152. In 1939, the Pope Pius XII employed a Jewish cartographer, Roberto Almagia, to work on old maps in the Vatican library.

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153. The Pope was understood to have the power to draw on the Treasury of Merit built up by the saints and by Christ, so that he could grant indulgences, reducing one's time in purgatory.

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154. Pope Francis is visiting the UAE on the first papal trip ever to the Arabian Peninsula, the birthplace of Islam.

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155. Pope Paul VI was the first pope in centuries to meet the heads of various Eastern Orthodox faiths.

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156. The Pope had to make a decree that Native Americans were "rational beings with souls" and not to be enslaved in 1537.

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157. Pope Francis March held his papal inauguration on 19 March 2013 in St Peter's Square in the Vatican.

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158. Pope Francis attended the meeting, where he spoke in favor of Buddhists and Catholics working together to address social problems.

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159. At the start of his reign Pope Julius II had seriously desired to bring about a reform of the Catholic Church and to reconvene the Council of Trent, but very little was actually achieved during his five years in office.

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160. Pope Julius II was a popular painting subject for this artist as well as his students.

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161. Pope Francis calls for prayers to spread the language of love against weapons.

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162. Pope John Paul II campaigned for world debt forgiveness and social justice.

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163. Pope Benedict XVI re-introduced several papal garments which had fallen into disuse.

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164. Pope Pius IX decided to move his residence from the Quirinal Palace inside Rome to the Vatican, where popes have lived ever since.

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165. The Pope plans to push out "requests for prayers for the Church's mission" in that "Pray with the Pope" section.

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166. In 1968 Pope Paul VI went against the advice of the majority of his chosen counselors on the subject and in his letter Humanae vitae upheld the tradition of his predecessors, who had condemned what they called "artificial" birth control.

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167. Pope Paul VI was the first pope in history to make apostolic journeys to other continents and visited six continents.

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168. Pope Paul VI used his authority to ensure that the liturgical reforms of Pius XII were carried out at the local level and employed innovative methods to reach the people of Milan.

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169. Pope Benedict XVI stayed there while renovations were made to a convent, Mater Ecclesiae, in the southwest corner of Vatican City, which became his residence.

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170. Pope Francis has condemned the conflict, in which the UAE is involved as part of a Saudi-led coalition.

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171. The Pope had to make a decree that Native Americans were "rational beings with souls" and not to be enslaved in 1537.

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172. Pope Pius XII warned the Allies of the planned German invasion of the Low Countries in 1940.

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173. Pope John Paul II participated in the assemblies of the Synod of Bishops.

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174. Pope Benedict XVI is one of the most important figures of the 20th and early 21st centuries.

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175. The Pope appointed the Rev Federico Lombardi to moderate the plenary meetings.

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176. Coptic Orthodox Pope was already called by the Alexandrine clergy and by all the Egyptian bishops papas, since the middle of the 3rd century.

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177. Pope Paul VI enjoyed meetings with intellectuals, artists and writers.

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178. Pope John Paul II was an outspoken opponent of apartheid in South Africa.

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179. Pope Paul VI made extensive contributions to Mariology during his pontificate.

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180. On 29 June 2013, Pope Francis published his first encyclical, titled Lumen fidei.

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181. In October 2014, Pope Francis March met for the first time with a delegation of the Old Catholic Church's Bishops' Conference of the Union of Utrecht, led by the Archbishop of Utrecht and President of the International Old Catholic Bishops Conference Joris Vercammen.

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182. Benedict XVI attended the consistory for new cardinals in February 2015, greeting Pope Francis at the beginning of the celebration.

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183. Pope Pius XII was consecrated as a bishop on 13 May 1917, the very first day of the apparitions of Our Lady of Fatima.

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184. Pope Benedict XVI chose to remove the title at a time when discussions with the Orthodox churches have centered on the issue of papal primacy.

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185. Paul VI was the last pope to date to be crowned on June 30, 1963; his successor Pope John Paul I substituted an inauguration for the papal coronation.

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186. Pope Pius XII was concerned too about the potential spread of Communism in Western Europe and the Americas.

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187. Pope Pius IX's sought refuge with the pope, and she would eat and drink only what was prepared for him, fearful that everything else might be poisoned.

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188. In 1968, in the encyclical Humanae Vitae, Pope Paul VI reaffirmed the church's long-standing ban on contraception.

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189. Pope Francis went on to describe social debt as "immoral, unjust, and illegitimate".

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190. On 11 February 2013, Pope Benedict XVI unexpectedly announced his resignation in a speech in Latin before the cardinals, citing a "lack of strength of mind and body" due to his advanced age.

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191. The Pope said the church was developing a "zero tolerance" policy on abuse and cover-ups.

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192. Pope Paul VI became the first pope to visit six continents.

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193. Pope Francis took the final fourth vow in the Society of Jesus on 22 April 1973.

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194. Pope Francis condemned the persecution of Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar.

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195. Pope Pius XII was the first cardinal Secretary of State to be elected pope since Clement IX in 1667.

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196. Pope Benedict XVI is the first pope to resign since Gregory XII in 1415, and the first to do so on his own initiative since Celestine V in 1294.

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197. Pope John Paul II resided in the Belgian Pontifical College during this time, under presidency of Mgr Maximilien de Furstenberg.

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198. The Pope departed from papal tradition by adding beneath the shield his personal pastoral motto: Miserando atque eligendo.

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199. The Pope Pius IX had to make a decree that Native Americans were "rational beings with souls" and not to be enslaved in 1537.

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200. Pope Paul VI was the last pope to date to be crowned on June 30, 1963; his successor Pope John Paul I substituted an inauguration for the papal coronation.

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201. Paul VI was only lightly stabbed by Benjamin Mendoza y Amor Flores, who was subdued by the pope's personal bodyguard and travel organiser, Monsignor Paul Marcinkus.

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202. Coptic Orthodox Pope was exiled five times before his final victory over them.

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203. Pope Francis considers that, although the first witnesses of the resurrection of Jesus were women, their significance was ignored because in Jewish law, only males are credible witnesses.

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204. In terms of Christology, the Oriental Coptic Orthodox Pope understanding is that Christ is "One Nature—the Logos Incarnate", of the full humanity and full divinity.

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205. Pope Francis stressed there are "little steps" needed diplomatically in Venezuela first to "start the possibility of dialogue" before mediation.

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206. Pope Pius XII blocked French attempts for an ecclesiastical separation of the Saar region, supported the appointment of a papal administrator for Danzig and aided the reintegration of priests expelled from Poland.

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207. Pope Francis urged peace during his time in the religiously diverse city, known as the "Jerusalem of Europe".

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208. Pope Francis March established the World Day of the Poor in his Apostolic Letter, Misericordia et Misera, issued on 20 November 2016 to celebrate the end of the Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy.

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209. Pope Pius IX defined the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, meaning that Mary was conceived without original sin.

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210. Pope Paul VI opened the final session of the council, concelebrating with bishops from countries where the Church was persecuted.

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211. The Dalai Lama was adequately prepared by spiritual exercise and he had faithful cooks.

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212. In 2005, the Pope Benedict XVI listed several ways to combat the spread of HIV, including chastity, fidelity in marriage and anti-poverty efforts; he rejected the use of condoms.

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213. Pope Paul VI was neither able nor permitted to do so and instead stayed in bed, his temperature rising.

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214. Pope John Paul II was hospitalised with breathing problems caused by a bout of influenza on 1 February 2005.

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215. Pope Pius XII is reported to have broken down and wept uncontrollably.

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216. Pope Paul VI clearly suffered from the responses within the Church to Humanae vitae.

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217. Pope Francis worked for a few years in that capacity in the foods section at Hickethier-Bachmann Laboratory where his boss was Esther Ballestrino.

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218. Pope Julius II became an open partisan of the French and Venice, and accepted their goal, the destruction of the Sforza hold on Milan.

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219. Pope Francis reflected on encounter with the Lord for the 23rd World Day of Consecrated Life, which takes place every year on the feast of the Presentation of the Lord.

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220. Pope Francis canonized Maria Elisabeth Hesselblad and Stanislaus Papczynski on 5 June 2016 and then canonized Teresa of Calcutta on 4 September; he canonized seven additional saints on 16 October.

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221. Pope John Paul II agreed to serve as Auxiliary Bishop to Krakow's Archbishop Eugeniusz Baziak, and he received episcopal consecration on 28 September 1958.

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222. Pope Pius XII wrote of a time requiring "charity" for victims who had a "right" to compassion.

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223. Pope Francis is the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State.

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224. In June 2007, Pope Benedict XVI made a personal pilgrimage and pastoral visit to Assisi, the birthplace of St Francis.

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225. Pope John Paul II spent two weeks there recovering from a severe concussion and a shoulder injury.

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226. Pope Benedict XVI was promoted within the College of Cardinals to become Cardinal Bishop of Velletri-Segni in 1993 and was made the college's vice-dean in 1998 and dean in 2002.

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227. Pope Francis has asserted in the first-ever papal visit to the Arabian Peninsula that religious leaders have a duty to reject all war and commit themselves to dialogue.

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228. In 1995, Pope John Paul II held a meeting with 21 Jains, a sect that broke away from mainstream Hinduism in 600 BC, organised by the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue.

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229. Pope Francis has encouraged the anti-abuse action one of his archbishops wants to delay.

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230. Pope Pius IX was beatified on 3 September 2000 after the recognition of a miracle.

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231. Pope Francis was removed as rector by the Jesuit superior-general Peter Hans Kolvenbach because Bergoglio's policy of educating the young Jesuits in direct pastoral work and in popular religiosity was opposed to the worldwide trend in the Society of Jesus of emphasizing social justice based on sociological analysis, especially promoted by the Centro de Investigaciones y Accion Social.

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232. Pope Julius II took advantage of the Venetian isolation and created the military League of Cambrai to drive Venice from Faenza and Rimini.

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233. The Pope Francis loves you like this and you should love yourself and not worry about what people say.

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234. Pope Pius XII wrote of a persecuted Church and a time requiring "charity" for victims who had a "right" to compassion.

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235. The Pope had to make a decree that Native Americans were "rational beings with souls" and not to be enslaved in 1537.

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236. The Pope had to make a decree that Native Americans were "rational beings with souls" and not to be enslaved in 1537.

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237. Pope Pius IX reigned for another eight years, during which he became further estranged from the Italian government and witnessed a general outbreak of anticlericalism in western Europe.

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238. The Dalai Lama was made abbot of Tashilhunpo and stayed there teaching in Tsang for 9 months.

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239. On 6 June 2015, Pope Francis March visited Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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240. Pope Francis led the Argentine Church during the December 2001 riots in Argentina.

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241. The Pope had to make a decree that Native Americans were "rational beings with souls" and not to be enslaved in 1537.

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242. John Paul II was interred in the grottoes under the basilica, the Tomb of the Popes.

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243. Pope Julius II now had to deal with the final threat to papal supremacy in Italy, the French.

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244. Pope Francis was a member of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, the Congregation for the Clergy, the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, the Pontifical Council for the Family and the Commission for Latin America.

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245. Coptic Orthodox Pope was formally enthroned on November 18, 2012.

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246. Pope Benedict XVI might himself have drunk a small beer at the most.

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247. In September 2013, Pope Francis March approved the excommunication of Australian priest Greg Reynolds, the first during Francis's papacy.

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248. Pope Francis limited his time in Rome to "lightning visits".

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249. Pope John Paul II served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.

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250. Pope Francis presided over the third consistory of his papacy on 19 November 2016, elevating 17 new cardinals.

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251. On 31 October 2016, Pope Francis commemorated the 499th anniversary of the Reformation with Lutherans in Sweden.

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252. Benedict XVI was elected the 265th pope at the age of 78.

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253. Pope Francis kicked off his historic visit to the United Arab Emirates on Monday, arriving at Abu Dhabi's lavish presidential palace in his trademark understated Kia Soul hatchback.

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254. Pope Julius II was a friend and patron of Bramante and Raphael, and a patron of Michelangelo.

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255. Pope Francis met for the first time the Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, when he visited the Vatican, on 14 June 2013.

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256. Pope Francis made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1973, shortly after being named provincial superior, but his stay was shortened by the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War.

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257. Pope Benedict XVI declared that he would continue to serve the church "through a life dedicated to prayer".

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258. Pope Paul VI expressed a desire for peace during the Vietnam War.

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259. Pope Pius IX canonized a total of 52 saints during his pontificate.

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260. The Pope John Paul II spoke to leaders of the All-Ukrainian Council of Churches and Religious Organisations, pleading for "open, tolerant and honest dialogue".

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261. Pope Francis still appears at the window of the Apostolic Palace for the Sunday Angelus.

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262. The Pope had to make a decree that Native Americans were "rational beings with souls" and not to be enslaved in 1537.

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263. Pope Francis thanked brave people bringing aid to those driven from their homes.

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264. Pope Francis visited Ireland in 2018, in what was the first papal tour of the country since John Paul II's historic trip in 1979.

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265. Pope Paul VI became the first pope to visit six continents.

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266. Pope Benedict XVI promoted various UN events, such as World Refugee Day, on which he offered up special prayers for refugees and called for the international community to do more to secure refugees' human rights.

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267. In January 2017, Pope Francis demanded the resignation of Matthew Festing, the 79th Prince and Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.

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268. Pope Francis chose not to live in the official papal residence in the Apostolic Palace, but to remain in the Vatican guest house, in a suite in which he can receive visitors and hold meetings.

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269. Pope John Paul II had said throughout his pontificate that one of his greatest dreams was to visit Russia, but this never occurred.

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270. Coptic Orthodox Pope is believed to be guided by the hand of God.

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271. Pope Francis is reaching out to the margins of the Church by remembering these fellow Catholics who find themselves in a world very different from their native lands.

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272. Pope Francis took public transportation and cooked his own meals.

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273. Pope Pius IX visited the hospitals to comfort the wounded and sick but he seemed to have lost both some of his liberal tastes and his confidence in the Romans, who had turned against him in 1848.

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274. Pope Pius XII ruled autocratically, imposed his views, and expected exact obedience from all.

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275. Pope Julius II had seemingly restored fortuna or control by exercising his manly vertu, just as Machiavelli wrote.

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276. Pope Pius XII was responsible for giving the appellative title, The Catholic University of the Philippines to the then Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas.

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277. Pope Francis has made dialogue with Islam one of the cornerstones of his papacy.

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278. Pope Francis made that appointment official in a news release Thursday.

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279. Pope Francis has convened a meeting of South American bishops next year focusing on the plight of the church in the Amazon, a vast territory served by far too few priests.

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280. The Pope Paul VI, admitting that celibacy was difficult, nevertheless upheld it by appeals to Scripture and tradition and declined to modify the law in any way.

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281. Pope Paul VI reminded the Council Fathers that many bishops from the east could not attend because the governments in the East did not permit their journeys.

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282. The Dalai Lama was dissatisfied with his Regent and the Kashag and scolded them for not alleviating the condition of the common people, who had suffered much in small ongoing regional civil wars waged in Kokonor between Mongols, local Tibetans and the government over territory, and in Kham to extract unpaid taxes from rebellious Tibetan communities.

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283. Pope Pius IX died on 7 February 1878, aged 85, concluding the longest pontificate in papal history, after that of St Peter whom tradition holds had reigned for 37 years.

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284. Pope Francis maintained that, in those cases, priests should not refuse to baptize those children.

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285. Pope Pius XII met with Soviet representatives including Foreign Minister Georgi Chicherin, who rejected any kind of religious education, the ordination of priests and bishops, but offered agreements without the points vital to the Vatican.

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286. Pope Francis spent several months at the Sankt Georgen Graduate School of Philosophy and Theology in Frankfurt, Germany, considering possible dissertation topics.

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287. Pope Pius XII was enrolled at the State University, La Sapienza where he studied modern languages and history.

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288. Pope Francis has convened a meeting of South American bishops next year focusing on the plight of the church in the Amazon, a vast territory served by few priests.

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289. Pope Paul VI attended the Cesare Arici school, run by the Jesuits, and in 1916 received a diploma from the Arnaldo da Brescia public school in Brescia.

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290. Pope Francis lived in a small apartment, rather than in the elegant bishop's residence in the suburb of Olivos.

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291. On 18 June 2015, Pope Francis issued a papal encyclical called Laudato si' on climate change, care for the environment, and sustainable development.

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292. Pope Francis makes a historic visit to the UAE on Sunday.

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293. Paul VI travelled more widely than any of his predecessors, earning the nickname "the Pilgrim Pope".

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294. Coptic Orthodox Pope is written with a mix of the Greek alphabet and Egyptian characters.

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295. Pope Benedict XVI acknowledged the Lutheran church, saying that he has had friends in that denomination.

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296. Pope Francis published his second one, entitled, on 18 June 2015, concerning care for the planet.

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297. Pope Pius XII negotiated food shipments for Russia, where the Church was persecuted.

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298. Pope Paul VI travelled more widely than any of his predecessors, earning the nickname "the Pilgrim Pope".

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299. On 8 December 2017, Pope Francis signed a new apostolic constitution on ecclesiastical universities and faculties Veritatis gaudium, published 29 January 2018.

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300. Pope Benedict XVI was head of the Catholic Church and as sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013.

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301. The French believed Pope Julius II had engineered the revolt in order to force their withdrawal from Italy, and the French king, Louis XII, dispatched an army to smash the insurrection.

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302. Pope Paul VI extended this requirement to all cardinals in Ingravescentem aetatem on 21 November 1970, with the further provision that cardinals would relinquish their offices in the Roman Curia upon reaching their 80th birthday.

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303. Pope Francis is credited with having a less formal approach to the papacy than his predecessors, for instance choosing to reside in the Domus Sanctae Marthae guesthouse rather than in the papal apartments of the Apostolic Palace used by previous popes.

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304. The Pope possesses a summer residence at Castel Gandolfo, situated on the site of the ancient city of Alba Longa.

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305. Pope Pius IX would have to grant it as ruler of ten million Catholic subjects who would desire to see the head of their Church protected.

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306. The Dalai Lama studied Buddhist philosophy extensively and in 1405, ordained by Narthang's abbot, he took the name of Gendun Drup.

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307. Pope Pius IX was adamant about his role as the highest teaching authority in the church.

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308. Pope Francis has often spoken about the importance of women in the Catholic Church.

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309. The Dalai Lama criticised the words carved on this gift as being faultily translated into Tibetan, writing that "The Tibetan version of the inscription of the seal was translated by a Mongol translator but was not a good translation".

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310. The Pope had to make a decree that Native Americans were "rational beings with souls" and not to be enslaved in 1537.

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311. Pope Paul VI was consecrated bishop in Saint Peter's Basilica by Cardinal Eugene Tisserant, the Dean of the College of Cardinals, since Pius XII was forced to stay in bed due to his severe illness.

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312. Pope Julius II hired Michelangelo to design and execute a tomb for the Pontiff and to decorate the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

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313. Pope Benedict XVI took up this theme in his first encyclical Deus caritas est.

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314. Pope Benedict XVI continued the tradition of his predecessor John Paul II and baptised several infants in the Sistine Chapel at the beginning of each year, in his pastoral role as Bishop of Rome.

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315. Pope Francis has met with a group of Muslim elders at the Grand Mosque in Abu Dhabi in what the Vatican says was a "particularly cordial and fraternal" encounter.

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316. The Pope Pius XII avoided long ceremonies, canonizations and consistories and displayed hesitancy in personnel matters.

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317. Pope Pius IX ordered the strengthening of the Colosseum, which was threatened with collapse.

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318. Pope Francis can help solve mystery of girl's disappearance, brother says.

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319. Pope John Paul II died in his private apartment at 21:37 CEST of heart failure from profound hypotension and complete circulatory collapse from septic shock, 46 days before his 85th birthday.

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320. Pope John Paul II praised Mohandas Gandhi for his "unshakeable faith in God", assured the Jains that the Catholic Church will continue to engage in dialogue with their religion and spoke of the common need to aid the poor.

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321. Pope Pius IX was the longest-reigning elected pope in the history of the Catholic Church, serving for over 31 years.

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322. Pope Pius XII is effectively ruling that traditionalists can freely celebrate the old rite liturgies, but they cannot reject Vatican II: one of the major criticisms the Lefebvrists have if the council is its teaching on religious freedom.

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323. Pope Pius IX improved the transportation system by building roads, viaducts, bridges and seaports.

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324. Pope Pius IX refused to leave Vatican City, declaring himself a "prisoner of the Vatican".

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325. The Pope was waived from the 53-man roster ahead of the Chargers divisional-round loss to the Patriots.

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