33 Facts About Somaliland


Somaliland, officially the Republic of Somaliland, is a de facto sovereign state in the Horn of Africa, considered internationally to be part of Somalia.

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On 27 June 1960, the Legislative Assembly of Somaliland unanimously enacted an Act of Union with Somalia which stated that the two entities would forever remain united.

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In 1961, Somalia took control of state institutions, which was rejected in the former State of Somaliland and resulted in the Somaliland residents boycotting the vote on the Somali constitution.

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However, Somaliland's self-proclaimed independence has not been officially recognised by any country or international organisation.

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The name "Republic of Somaliland" was taken upon the declaration of independence following the Somali Civil War in 1991.

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Somaliland addressed early tensions between the Saad Musa and Eidagale upon the former's settlement into the growing town of Hargeisa in the late 19th century.

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British Somaliland was then administered by the Foreign Office until 1905, and afterwards by the Colonial Office.

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Somaliland Campaign, called the Anglo-Somali War or the Dervish War, was a series of military expeditions that took place between 1900 and 1920 in the Horn of Africa, pitting the Dervishes led by Mohammed Abdullah Hassan against the British.

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Italian conquest of British Somaliland was a military campaign in East Africa, which took place in August 1940 between forces of Italy and those of several British and Commonwealth countries.

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Somaliland telegraphed that in certain circumstances it might become necessary to ask for reinforcements of troops to be sent to the Protectorate.

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Somaliland was generally thought to settle disputes through the use of Islamic Sharia and gathered around him a strong following.

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Somaliland's family took quick action to remove his body from the place of his death at Geela-eeg mountain, about 20 miles from Burao.

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The Legislative Council of British Somaliland passed a resolution in April 1960 requesting independence and union with the Trust Territory of Somaliland, which was scheduled to gain independence on 1 July that year.

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British-trained Somaliland officers attempted a revolt to end the union in December 1961.

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Somaliland'srmarke was assassinated two years later by one of his own bodyguards.

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Somaliland's murder was quickly followed by a military coup d'etat on 21 October 1969, in which the Somalian Army seized power without encountering armed opposition.

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Thereafter, as the political situation in Somaliland stabilized, the displaced people returned to their homes, the militias were demobilized or incorporated into the army, and tens of thousands of houses and businesses were reconstructed from rubble.

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One critical clause of the 130 individual articles of the constitution would ratify Somaliland's self-declared independence and final separation from Somalia, restoring the nation's independence for the first time since 1960.

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Constitution of Somaliland defines the political system; the Republic of Somaliland is a unitary state and presidential republic, based on peace, co-operation, democracy and a multi-party system.

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Somaliland government continues to apply the 1962 penal code of the Somali Republic.

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Specifically, Kaplan suggests that Somaliland has the most democratic political system in the Horn of Africa because it has been largely insulated from the extremist elements in the rest of Somalia and has viable electoral and legislative systems as well as a robust private sector-dominated economy, unlike neighbouring authoritarian governments.

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Kaplan asserts that this has facilitated cohesiveness and conferred greater governmental legitimacy in Somaliland, as has the territory's comparatively homogeneous population, relatively equitable income distribution, a common fear of the south, and absence of interference by outside forces, which has obliged local politicians to observe a degree of accountability.

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Somaliland has political contacts with its neighbours Ethiopia and Djibouti, non-UN member state Republic of China, as well as with South Africa, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the micro-nation of Liberland.

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Carson said the US would send aid workers and diplomats to Puntland and Somaliland and alluded to the possibility of future development projects.

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Tensions between Puntland and Somaliland escalated into violence several times between 2002 and 2009.

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Republic of Somaliland is divided into six administrative regions: Awdal, Sahil, Maroodi Jeeh, Togdheer, Sanaag and Sool.

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Somaliland has an 850 kilometres coastline with the majority lying along the Gulf of Aden.

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Somaliland's climate is a mixture of wet and dry conditions.

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Since Somaliland is unrecognised, international donors have found it difficult to provide aid.

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In June 2016, the Somaliland government signed an agreement with DP World to manage the strategic port of Berbera with the aim of enhancing productive capacity and acting as an alternative port for landlocked Ethiopia.

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Many people in Somaliland speak two of the three official languages: Somali, Arabic and English, although the rate of bilingualism is lower in rural areas.

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Article 6 of the Constitution of 2001 designates the official language of Somaliland to be Somali, though Arabic is a mandatory subject in school and is used in mosques around the region and English is spoken and taught in schools.

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Somaliland falls within the Episcopal Area of the Horn of Africa as part of Somalia, under the Anglican Diocese of Egypt.

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