Albania has been inhabited by different civilisations over time, such as the Illyrians, Thracians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Venetians, and Ottomans.
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Albania provides universal health care and free primary and secondary education to its citizens.
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Albania is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, UNESCO, NATO, WTO, COE, OSCE, and OIC.
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In 1272, he established the Kingdom of Albania and conquered regions back from the Despotate of Epirus.
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Albania declared independence from the Ottoman Empire on 28 November 1912, accompanied with the establishment of the Senate and Government by the Assembly of Vlore on 4 December 1912.
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Albania made donations of land to international organisations for the building of schools and hospitals.
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In October 1940, Albania served as a staging ground for an unsuccessful Italian invasion of Greece.
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Germans started to occupy the country in September 1943 and subsequently announced that they would recognise the independence of a neutral Albania and set about organising a new government, military and law enforcement.
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Unemployment has been steadily reduced, with Albania achieving the 4th lowest unemployment rate in the Balkans.
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Biodiversity hotspot, Albania possesses an exceptionally rich and contrasting biodiversity on account of its geographical location at the centre of the Mediterranean Sea and the great diversity in its climatic, geological and hydrological conditions.
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In terms of phytogeography, Albania is part of the Boreal Kingdom and stretches specifically within the Illyrian province of the Circumboreal and Mediterranean Region.
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Approximately 3, 500 different species of plants can be found in Albania which refers principally to a Mediterranean and Eurasian character.
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Albania has fifteen officially designated national parks scattered across its territory.
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Environmental issues in Albania include air and water pollution, climate change, waste management, biodiversity loss and nature conservation.
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Albania's ranking has however decreased since its highest placement at position 15 in the Environmental Performance Index of 2012.
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In 2019, Albania had a Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 6.
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Albania is a parliamentary constitutional republic and sovereign state whose politics operate under a framework laid out in the constitution wherein the president functions as the head of state and the prime minister as the head of government.
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Albania maintains strong ties with the United States ever after it supported the Albania's independence and democracy.
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In 2007, Albania welcomed George W Bush who became the first President of the United States ever to visit the country.
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Albania has been an active member of the United Nations since 1955.
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Albania is a full member of numerous international organisations inclusively the Council of Europe, International Organisation for Migration, World Health Organization, Union for the Mediterranean, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization and La Francophonie.
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Chief purpose of the armed forces of Albania is the defence of the independence, the sovereignty and the territorial integrity of the country, as well as the participation in humanitarian, combat, non-combat and peace support operations.
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Albania has committed to increase the participations in multinational operations.
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Since February 2008, Albania has participated officially in NATO's Operation Active Endeavor in the Mediterranean Sea.
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Albania reduced the number of active troops from 65, 000 in 1988 to 14, 500 in 2009.
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Albania was one of three countries in Europe to record an economic growth in the first quarter of 2010 after the global financial crisis.
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Albania produces significant amounts of fruits, vegetables (potatoes, tomatoes, maize, onions, and wheat), sugar beets, tobacco, meat, honey, dairy products, traditional medicine and aromatic plants.
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Secondary sector of Albania have undergone many changes and diversification, since the collapse of the communist regime in the country.
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Albania has the second largest oil deposits in the Balkan peninsula after Romania, and the largest oil reserves in Europe.
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Albania is a significant minerals producer and is ranked among the world's leading chromium producers and exporters.
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Eagle, Vodafone and Telekom Albania are the leading telecommunications service providers in the country.
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Albania had only 500, 000 visitors in 2005, while in 2012 had an estimated 4.
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Highways and motorways in Albania are properly maintained and often still under construction and renovation.
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The specific location of this railway, connecting the most populated urban areas in Albania, merely makes it an important economic development project.
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Currently, the electricity generation sector of Albania is dependent on hydroelectricity simultaneously ranking fifth in the world in percentage terms.
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Water resources of Albania are particularly abundant in all the regions of the country and comprise lakes, rivers, springs and groundwater aquifers.
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Albania was ranked 84th in the Global Innovation Index in 2021.
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Vodafone Albania alone served more than 931, 000 mobile users, Telekom Albania had about 605, 000 users and Albtelecom had more than 272, 000 users.
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Albania recognises nine national or cultural minorities: Aromanian, Greek, Macedonian, Montenegrin, Serb, Roma, Egyptian, Bosnian and Bulgarian peoples.
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Albania is nevertheless ranked among the least religious countries in the world.
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Albania is a secular and religiously diverse country with no official religion and thus, freedom of religion, belief and conscience are guaranteed under the country's constitution.
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Some smaller Christian sects in Albania include Evangelicals and several Protestant communities including Seventh-day Adventist Church, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and Jehovah's Witnesses.
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The first recorded Protestant of Albania was Said Toptani, who travelled around Europe and returned to Tirana in 1853, where he preached Protestantism.
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Flag of Albania is a red flag with a black double-headed eagle positioned in the centre.
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Artistic history of Albania has been particularly influenced by a multitude of ancient and medieval people, traditions and religions.
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Architecture of Albania reflects the legacy of various civilisations tracing back to the classical antiquity.
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Major cities in Albania have evolved from within the castle to include dwellings, religious and commercial structures, with constant redesigning of town squares and evolution of building techniques.
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Tave kosi is the national dish of Albania, consisting of lamb and rice baked under a thick, tart veil of yoghurt.
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Albania has a long and ancient history of wine production, and belongs to the Old World of wine producing countries.
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Albania was ranked 84th on the Press Freedom Index of 2020 compiled by the Reporters Without Borders, with its score steadily declining since 2003.
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Radio Televizioni Shqiptar is the national broadcaster corporation of Albania operating numerous television and radio stations in the country.
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Every cultural and geographical region of Albania has its own specific variety of costume that vary in style, material, colour, shape, detail, and form.
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Albania has been mentioned as a possible recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature several times.
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Albania participated at the Olympic Games in 1972 for the first time.
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Albania missed the next four games, two of them due to the 1980 and 1984 boycotts, but returned for the 1992 games in Barcelona.
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Albania normally competes in events that include swimming, athletics, weightlifting, shooting and wrestling.
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