The Andes Mountains extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina.
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Along their length, the Andes Mountains are split into several ranges, separated by intermediate depressions.
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The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorian Andes Mountains is farther from the Earth's center than any other location on the Earth's surface, due to the equatorial bulge resulting from the Earth's rotation.
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Andes Mountains are part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an almost continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica.
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The Andes Mountains are the result of tectonic plate processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American Plate.
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The main cause of the rise of the Andes Mountains is the compression of the western rim of the South American Plate due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate and the Antarctic Plate.
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From a geographical approach, the Andes Mountains are considered to have their western boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography.
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The Andes Mountains contain large quantities of iron ore located in many mountains within the range.
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The rise of the Andes Mountains has not been constant, as different regions have had different degrees of tectonic stress, uplift, and erosion.
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Andes Mountains range has many active volcanoes distributed in four volcanic zones separated by areas of inactivity.
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Porphyry copper in the western slopes of the Andes Mountains has been generated by hydrothermal fluids during the cooling of plutons or volcanic systems.
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The dry climate in the central western Andes Mountains has led to the creation of extensive saltpeter deposits which were extensively mined until the invention of synthetic nitrates.
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Andes Mountains, initially inhabited by hunter-gatherers, experienced the development of agriculture and rise of politically centralised civilizations, which culminated in the establishment of the century-long Inca Empire.
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In tide of anti-imperialist nationalism, the Andes Mountains became the scene of a series of independence wars in the 19th century when rebel forces swept through the region to overthrow Spanish colonial rule.
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Since the Dry Andes Mountains extend from the latitudes of Atacama Desert to the area of Maule River, precipitation is more sporadic and there are strong temperature oscillations.
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Rainforests and tropical dry forests used to encircle much of the northern Andes Mountains but are now greatly diminished, especially in the Choco and inter-Andean valleys of Colombia.
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Andes Mountains rose to fame for their mineral wealth during the Spanish conquest of South America.
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The Bolivian Andes Mountains produce principally tin although historically silver mining had a huge impact on the economy of 17th century Europe.
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