55 Facts About Peru


Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon River.

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Peru has a population of 32 million, and its capital and largest city is Lima.

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Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, and following the foreign military campaigns of Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar, and the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru completed its independence in 1824.

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Sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions.

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Peru has a high level of human development with an upper middle income level ranking 82nd on the Human Development Index.

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Peru ranks high in social freedom; it is an active member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Alliance, the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership and the World Trade Organization; and is considered as a middle power.

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Peru has a population that includes Mestizos, Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians.

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Peru said the name Biru was that of a common Amerindian who was happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Avila and went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language.

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The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BCE along what is Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Inca culture.

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The Spanish conquest of Peru was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

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The conquest of Peru led to spin-off campaigns throughout the viceroyalty as well as expeditions towards the Amazon Basin as in the case of Spanish efforts to quell Amerindian resistance.

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The need to ease communication and trade with Spain led to the split of the viceroyalty and the creation of new viceroyalties of New Granada and Rio de la Plata at the expense of the territories that formed the Viceroyalty of Peru; this reduced the power, prominence and importance of Lima as the viceroyal capital and shifted the lucrative Andean trade to Buenos Aires and Bogota, while the fall of the mining and textile production accelerated the progressive decay of the Viceroyalty of Peru.

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However, the Criollo oligarchy in Peru enjoyed privileges and remained loyal to the Spanish Crown.

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Peru sent representatives to Lima urging the Viceroy that Peru be granted independence, however, all negotiations proved unsuccessful.

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Upper Peru remained as a Spanish stronghold until the army of Simon Bolivar liberated it three years later.

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Peru embarked on a railroad-building program that helped but bankrupted the country.

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In 1879, Peru entered the War of the Pacific which lasted until 1884.

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Between 1932 and 1933, Peru was engulfed in a year-long war with Colombia over a territorial dispute involving the Amazonas Department and its capital Leticia.

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Peru came down hard on APRA, momentarily pleasing the oligarchy and all others on the right, but followed a populist course that won him great favor with the poor and lower classes.

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Peru wished to free itself from any dependence and carried out a third-world foreign policy.

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In 1973, Peru seemed to triumph over the financial blockade imposed by Washington by negotiating a loan from the International Development Bank to finance its agricultural and mining development policy.

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Peru engaged in a two week long conflict with Ecuador during the Paquisha War in early 1981 as a result of territorial dispute between the two countries.

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Peru then revised the constitution; called new congressional elections; and implemented substantial economic reform, including privatization of numerous state-owned companies, creation of an investment-friendly climate, and sound management of the economy.

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Since the end of the Fujimori regime, Peru has tried to fight corruption while sustaining economic growth.

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In May 2008, Peru became a member of the Union of South American Nations.

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Elections were held on 11 April 2021, and Pedro Castillo of the Free Peru party won the first round, followed closely by Keiko Fujimori.

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That same year, Peru celebrated the bicentenary of independence on its 200th anniversary.

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Peru is a unitary presidential republic with a multi-party system.

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Under its constitution, the president of Peru is both head of state and government and is elected to a five-year term without immediate reelection.

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The Congress of Peru can pass a motion of no confidence, censure ministers, as well as initiate impeachments and convict executives.

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Peru uses a multi-party system for congressional and general elections.

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Exceptionally many presidents of Peru have been ousted from office or imprisoned on allegations of corruption over the past three decades.

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Peru is divided into 26 units: 24 departments, the Constitutional Province of Callao and the Province of Lima – which is independent of any region and serves as the country's capital.

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Some areas of Peru are defined as metropolitan areas which overlap district areas.

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Peru is an active member of several regional trade blocs and is one of the founding members of the Andean Community of Nations.

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Peru has planned to be fully integrated into the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development by 2021, attributing its economic success and efforts to strengthen institutions as meeting factors to be a part of the OECD.

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Peru maintains an integrated relationship with other South American nations, and is a member of various South American intergovernmental agreements, more recently the Organization of American States, Mercosur, the Andean Community of Nations, the Pacific Alliance, and the APEC.

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Additionally, Peru has participated in taking a leading role in addressing the crisis in Venezuela through the establishment of the Lima Group.

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In 2020, Peru used its military personnel and even reservists to enforce the strict quarantine measures placed during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Peru is located on the central western coast of South America facing the Pacific Ocean.

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The largest reservoirs, all in the coastal region of Peru, are the Poechos, Tinajones, San Lorenzo, and El Fraile reservoirs.

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Peru has over 1, 800 species of birds, over 500 species of mammals, over 300 species of reptiles, and over 1, 000 species of freshwater fishes.

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The Birds of Peru produce large amounts of guano, an economically important export.

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The invertebrate fauna is far less inventoried; at least beetles have been surveyed in the "Beetles of Peru" project, led by Caroline S Chaboo, University of Nebraska, USA and this revealved more 12, 000 documented and many new species for Peru.

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Peru had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 8.

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Economy of Peru is the 48th largest in the world, and the income level is classified as upper middle by the World Bank.

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Peru is, as of 2011, one of the world's fastest-growing economies owing to an economic boom experienced during the 2000s.

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Peru was ranked 70th in the Global Innovation Index in 2021.

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Little industrialized, Peru suffers from the international variation of commodity prices.

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In livestock, Peru is one of the 20 largest producers of chicken meat in the world.

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Peru has important international airports such as Lima, Cuzco and Arequipa.

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In 2021, Peru had, in terms of installed renewable electricity, 5, 490 MW in hydropower, 409 MW in wind power (49th largest in the world), 336 MW in solar power (62nd largest in the world), and 185 MW in biomass.

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Peru is a multiethnic nation formed by successive waves of different peoples over five centuries.

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Peru is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World.

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Peru produced the first animated 3-D film in Latin America, Piratas en el Callao.

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