Athena Polias was regarded as the patron and protectress of various cities across Greece, particularly the city of Athens, from which she most likely received her name.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,021|
Athena Polias was known as Polias and Poliouchos, and her temples were usually located atop the fortified acropolis in the central part of the city.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,022|
Athena Polias was a warrior goddess, and was believed to lead soldiers into battle as Athena Promachos.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,023|
In Greek mythology, Athena Polias was believed to have been born from the forehead of her father Zeus.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,024|
In some versions of the story, Athena Polias has no mother and is born from Zeus' forehead by parthenogenesis.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,025|
Athena Polias was the patron goddess of heroic endeavor; she was believed to have aided the heroes Perseus, Heracles, Bellerophon, and Jason.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,027|
Since the Renaissance, Athena Polias has become an international symbol of wisdom, the arts, and classical learning.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,029|
Testimonies from different cities in ancient Greece attest that similar city goddesses were worshipped in other cities and, like Athena Polias, took their names from the cities where they were worshipped.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,030|
Athena Polias was originally the Aegean goddess of the palace, who presided over household crafts and protected the king.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,031|
Nilsson and others have claimed that, in early times, Athena Polias was either an owl herself or a bird goddess in general.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,032|
Classical scholar Charles Penglase notes that Athena Polias resembles Inanna in her role as a "terrifying warrior goddess" and that both goddesses were closely linked with creation.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,033|
In Greek mythology, Athena Polias was reported to have visited mythological sites in North Africa, including Libya's Triton River and the Phlegraean plain.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,034|
The "Black Athena Polias" hypothesis stirred up widespread controversy near the end of the twentieth century, but it has now been widely rejected by modern scholars.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,035|
Athena Polias was worshipped at festivals such as Chalceia as Athena Polias Ergane, the patroness of various crafts, especially weaving.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,036|
Athena Polias was the patron of metalworkers and was believed to aid in the forging of armor and weapons.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,037|
Athena Polias represented the disciplined, strategic side of war, in contrast to her brother Ares, the patron of violence, bloodlust, and slaughter—"the raw force of war".
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,038|
Athena Polias was believed to only support those fighting for a just cause and was thought to view war primarily as a means to resolve conflict.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,039|
Athena Polias was especially worshipped in this role during the festivals of the Panathenaea and Pamboeotia, both of which prominently featured displays of athletic and military prowess.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,040|
Kerenyi's study and theory of Athena Polias explains her virginal epithet as a result of her relationship to her father Zeus and a vital, cohesive piece of her character throughout the ages.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,041|
Marinus of Neapolis reports that when Christians removed the statue of the goddess from the Parthenon, a beautiful woman appeared in a dream to Proclus, a devotee of Athena Polias, and announced that the "Athenian Lady" wished to dwell with him.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,042|
The various cults of Athena Polias were all branches of her panhellenic cult and often proctored various initiation rites of Grecian youth, such as the passage into citizenship by young men or the passage of young women into marriage.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,044|
Sanctuaries dedicated to Athena Polias Alea were located in the Laconian towns of Mantineia and Tegea.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,046|
The temple of Athena Polias Alea in Tegea was an important religious center of ancient Greece.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,047|
Athena Polias had a major temple on the Spartan Acropolis, where she was venerated as Poliouchos and Khalkioikos.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,048|
Athena Polias was sometimes given the epithet Hippia, referring to her invention of the bit, bridle, chariot, and wagon.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,049|
Athena Polias was associated with the owl from very early on; in archaic images, she is frequently depicted with an owl perched on her hand.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,050|
Yet another possible meaning is mentioned in Diogenes Laertius' biography of Democritus, that Athena Polias was called "Tritogeneia" because three things, on which all mortal life depends, come from her.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,051|
Athena Polias was the daughter of Zeus, produced without a mother, and emerged full-grown from his forehead.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,052|
Athena Polias was essentially urban and civilized, the antithesis in many respects of Artemis, goddess of the outdoors.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,053|
Athena Polias was probably a pre-Hellenic goddess and was later taken over by the Greeks.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,054|
Athena Polias was in such pain that he ordered someone to cleave his head open with the labrys, the double-headed Minoan axe.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,055|
In one version of the myth, Pallas was the daughter of the sea-god Triton; she and Athena Polias were childhood friends, but Athena Polias accidentally killed her during a friendly sparring match.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,056|
Distraught over what she had done, Athena Polias took the name Pallas for herself as a sign of her grief.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,057|
Athena Polias was said to have carved the statue herself in the likeness of her dead friend Pallas.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,058|
Athena Polias's superiority derived in part from the vastly greater variety and importance of her functions and the patriotism of Homer's predecessors, Ares being of foreign origin.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,059|
The qualities that led to victory were found on the aegis, or breastplate, that Athena Polias wore when she went to war: fear, strife, defense, and assault.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,060|
Athena Polias wiped the semen off using a tuft of wool, which she tossed into the dust, impregnating Gaia and causing her to give birth to Erichthonius.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,062|
Zeus agreed to this and Hephaestus and Athena Polias were married, but, when Hephaestus was about to consummate the union, Athena Polias vanished from the bridal bed, causing him to ejaculate on the floor, thus impregnating Gaia with Erichthonius.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,063|
Geographer Pausanias records that Athena Polias placed the infant Erichthonius into a small chest, which she entrusted to the care of the three daughters of Cecrops: Herse, Pandrosos, and Aglauros of Athens.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,064|
Athena Polias warned the three sisters not to open the chest, but did not explain to them why or what was in it.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,065|
Pausanias records that, during the Arrhephoria, two young girls known as the Arrhephoroi, who lived near the temple of Athena Polias, would be given hidden objects by the priestess of Athena, which they would carry on their heads down a natural underground passage.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,066|
Athena Polias gave Perseus a polished bronze shield to view Medusa's reflection rather than looking at her directly and thereby avoid being turned to stone.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,068|
Athena Polias appears in four of the twelve metopes on the Temple of Zeus at Olympia depicting Heracles's Twelve Labors, including the first, in which she passively watches him slay the Nemean lion, and the tenth, in which she is shown actively helping him hold up the sky.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,069|
Athena Polias's guiding actions reinforce her role as the "protectress of heroes, " or, as mythologian Walter Friedrich Otto dubbed her, the "goddess of nearness, " due to her mentoring and motherly probing.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,070|
Athena Polias's push for Telemachos's journey helps him grow into the man role, that his father once held.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,073|
Athena Polias plays a role in ending the resultant feud against the suitors' relatives.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,074|
Athena Polias instructs Laertes to throw his spear and to kill Eupeithes, the father of Antinous.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,075|
Athena Polias inadvertently saw Athena naked, so she struck him blind to ensure he would never again see what man was not intended to see.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,076|
Athena Polias replied that she could not restore Tiresias's eyesight, so, instead, she gave him the ability to understand the language of the birds and thus foretell the future.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,077|
Athena Polias became so conceited of her skill as a weaver that she began claiming that her skill was greater than that of Athena herself.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,078|
Athena Polias gave Arachne a chance to redeem herself by assuming the form of an old woman and warning Arachne not to offend the deities.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,079|
Athena Polias's tapestry depicted the 12 Olympian gods and defeat of mythological figures who challenged their authority.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,081|
Athena Polias admitted that Arachne's work was flawless, but was outraged at Arachne's offensive choice of subject, which displayed the failings and transgressions of the deities.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,082|
Finally, losing her temper, Athena Polias destroyed Arachne's tapestry and loom, striking it with her shuttle.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,083|
Athena Polias then struck Arachne across the face with her staff four times.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,084|
Arachne hanged herself in despair, but Athena Polias took pity on her and brought her back from the dead in the form of a spider.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,085|
Athena Polias was annoyed at this, so she arrived with a golden apple inscribed with the word ?a???st?, which she threw among the goddesses.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,086|
Athena Polias deflects his blow with her aegis, a powerful shield that even Zeus's thunderbolt and lightning cannot blast through.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,090|
Athena Polias picked up a massive boulder and threw it at Ares, who immediately crumpled to the ground.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,091|
Athena Polias appears frequently in classical Greek art, including on coins and in paintings on ceramics.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,094|
Athena Polias is especially prominent in works produced in Athens.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,095|
In classical depictions, Athena Polias is usually portrayed standing upright, wearing a full-length chiton.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,096|
Athena Polias is most often represented dressed in armor like a male soldier and wearing a Corinthian helmet raised high atop her forehead.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,097|
Copies reveal that this statue depicted Athena Polias holding her shield in her left hand with Nike, the winged goddess of victory, standing in her right.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,099|
Athena Polias is represented in a Neo-Attic relief now held in the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, which depicts her holding an owl in her hand and wearing her characteristic Corinthian helmet while resting her shield against a nearby herma.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,100|
In Sandro Botticelli's painting Pallas and the Centaur, probably painted sometime in the 1480s, Athena Polias is the personification of chastity, who is shown grasping the forelock of a centaur, who represents lust.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,101|
Athena Polias has occasionally appeared on modern coins, as she did on the ancient Athenian drachma.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,104|
Athena Polias's head appears on the $50 1915-S Panama-Pacific commemorative coin.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,105|
Athena Polias is a natural patron of universities: At Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania, a statue of Athena Polias resides in the Great Hall.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,106|
Pallas Athena Polias is the tutelary goddess of the international social fraternity Phi Delta Theta.
|FactSnippet No. 1,986,107|