25 Facts About Java


Java was the center of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 1940s.

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The Madurese in the Eastern salient of Java are migrants from Madura Island, while the Betawi in the capital city of Jakarta are hybrids from various ethnic groups in Indonesia.

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Java is mentioned in the ancient Tamil text Manimekalai by Chithalai Chathanar which states that Java had a kingdom with a capital called Nagapuram.

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The name indicates Java and seems to be derived from the Sanskrit name Java-dvipa .

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Java is surrounded by the Java Sea to the north, Sunda Strait to the west, the Indian Ocean to the south and Bali Strait and Madura Strait in the east.

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Java is almost entirely of volcanic origin; it contains thirty-eight mountains forming an east–west spine that have at one time or another been active volcanoes.

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Java was the first place where Indonesian coffee was grown, starting in 1699.

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West Java is wetter than East Java, and mountainous regions receive much higher rainfall.

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Natural environment of Java is tropical rainforest, with ecosystems ranging from coastal mangrove forest on the north coast, rocky coastal cliffs on the southern coast, and low-lying tropical forest to high altitude rainforest on the slopes of mountainous volcanic regions in the interior.

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Today, several national parks exist in Java that protect the remnants of its fragile wildlife, such as Ujung Kulon, Mount Halimun-Salak, Gede Pangrango, Baluran, Meru Betiri, Bromo Tengger Semeru and Alas Purwo.

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The chain of volcanic mountains and associated highlands running the length of Java kept its interior regions and peoples separate and relatively isolated.

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Emergence of civilization on the island of Java is often associated with the story of Aji Saka from 78 AD.

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Taruma and Sunda kingdoms of western Java appeared in the 4th and 7th centuries respectively, while the Kalingga Kingdom sent embassies to China starting in 640.

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In 1811, Java was captured by the British, becoming a possession of the British Empire, and Sir Stamford Raffles was appointed as the island's governor.

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In 1814, Java was returned to the Dutch under the terms of the Treaty of Paris.

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Java is divided into four provinces and two special regions:.

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Java has been traditionally dominated by an elite class, while the people in the lower classes were often involved in agriculture and fishing.

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The elite class in Java has evolved over the course of history, as cultural wave after cultural wave immigrated to the island.

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Central Java however has a younger population than the national average.

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East Java is home to ethnic Balinese, as well as large numbers of Madurans due to their historic poverty.

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Java's remaining aristocracy is based here, and it is the region from where the majority of Indonesia's army, business, and political elite originate.

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Small Hindu enclaves are scattered throughout Java, but there is a large Hindu population along the eastern coast nearest Bali, especially around the town of Banyuwangi.

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Java was famous for rice surpluses and rice export since ancient times, and rice agriculture contributed to the population growth of the island.

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Java took part in the global trade of Maluku spice from ancient times in the Majapahit era, until well into the Dutch East India Company era.

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Java has been Indonesia's most developed island since the Dutch East Indies era and continues to be so today in the modern Republic of Indonesia.

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