15 Facts About Livonia


Livonia is a historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.

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Livonia, as understood after the retreat of Denmark in 1346, bordered on the Gulf of Finland in the north, Lake Peipus and Russia to the east, and Lithuania to the south.

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Indigenous inhabitants of Livonia were various Finnic tribes in the north and Baltic tribes in the south.

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Livonia ordered the construction of a cathedral and became the first Prince-Bishop of Livonia.

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Livonia negotiated a continued peace with Muscovy and spoke to the burghers of Reval city.

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Livonia offered them goods to submit to him as well as threatening them.

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Livonia would try to obtain more land in Livonia and to dominate Denmark.

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Livonia used the next two years of truce to get in a better position.

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Eight years later, in 1569, when the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Livonia became a joint domain administered directly by the king and grand duke.

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Livonia came to an agreement with John III in 1580 giving him the titles in Livonia.

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In 1578, Magnus of Livonia recognized the sovereignty of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth .

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In 1578, Magnus of Livonia retired to The Bishopric of Courland and his brother all but gave up the land in Livonia.

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The area, usually known as Swedish Livonia, became a very important Swedish dominion, with Riga being the second largest Swedish city and Livonia paying for one third of the Swedish war costs.

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Livonia remained within the Russian Empire until the end of World War I, when it was split between the newly independent states of Latvia and Estonia.

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In independent Latvia between the World Wars, southern Livonia became an administrative region under the traditional Latvian name Vidzeme, encompassing the then much larger counties of Riga, Cesis, Valmiera, and Valka.

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