80 Facts About Finland


Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe.

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In 1809, as a result of the Finnish War, Finland became part of the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland, during which Finnish art flourished and the idea of independence began to take hold.

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In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant universal suffrage, and the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office.

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Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russia, tried to russify Finland and terminate its political autonomy, but after the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared independence from Russia.

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Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and adopted an official policy of neutrality; it joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, and the Eurozone at its inception in 1999.

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Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life and human development.

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Finland became a common name for the whole country in a centuries-long process that started when the Catholic Church established a missionary diocese in Nousiainen in the northern part of the province of Suomi possibly sometime in the 12th century.

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Cultures in Finland shared common features in pottery and axes had similarities but local features existed.

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Main exports from Finland were furs, slaves, castoreum, and falcons to European courts.

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In Sweden even in the 17th and 18th centuries, it was clear that Finland was a conquered country and its inhabitants could be treated arbitrarily.

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An increasingly vocal elite in Finland soon determined that Finnish ties with Sweden were becoming too costly, and following the Russo-Swedish War, the Finnish elite's desire to break with Sweden only heightened.

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On 29 March 1809, having been taken over by the armies of Alexander I of Russia in the Finnish War, Finland became an autonomous Grand Duchy in the Russian Empire with the recognition given at the Diet held in Porvoo.

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In 1854, Finland became involved in Russia's involvement in the Crimean War, when the British and French navies bombed the Finnish coast and Aland during the so-called Aland War.

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Suddenly, the right-wing parties in Finland started to reconsider their decision to block the transfer of the highest executive power from the Russian government to Finland, as the Bolsheviks took power in Russia.

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Hostilities resumed in June 1941 with the Continuation War, when Finland aligned with Germany following the latter's invasion of the Soviet Union; the primary aim was to recapture the territory lost to the Soviets scarcely one year before.

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Finland rejected Marshall aid, in apparent deference to Soviet desires.

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Finland took part in trade liberalization in the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

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Finland maintained an effective monopoly on Soviet relations from 1956 on, which was crucial for his continued popularity.

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Finland negotiated with the European Economic Community a treaty that mostly abolished customs duties towards the EEC starting from 1977, although Finland did not fully join.

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Finland reacted cautiously to the collapse of the Soviet Union but swiftly began increasing integration with the West.

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On 21 September 1990, Finland unilaterally declared the Paris Peace Treaty obsolete, following the German reunification decision nine days earlier.

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The depression bottomed out in 1993, and Finland saw steady economic growth for more than ten years.

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Finland joined the European Union in 1995, and the Eurozone in 1999.

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On 11 May 2022, Finland entered into a mutual security pact with the United Kingdom.

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Much of the geography of Finland is a result of the Ice Age.

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Finland is the largest producer of wood in Europe and among the largest in the world.

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Phytogeographically, Finland is shared between the Arctic, central European, and northern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom.

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Finland had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 5.

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Main factor influencing Finland's climate is the country's geographical position between the 60th and 70th northern parallels in the Eurasian continent's coastal zone.

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Finland is near enough to the Atlantic Ocean to be continuously warmed by the Gulf Stream.

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Constitution of Finland defines the political system; Finland is a parliamentary republic within the framework of a representative democracy.

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Finland has had for most of its independence a semi-presidential system of government, but in the last few decades the powers of the President have been diminished, and the country is considered a parliamentary republic.

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Judicial system of Finland is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration.

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Finland has successfully fought against government corruption, which was more common in the 1970s and 1980s.

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Today, Finland has a very low number of corruption charges; Transparency International ranks Finland as one of the least corrupt countries in Europe.

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Finland was considered a cooperative model state, and Finland did not oppose proposals for a common EU defence policy.

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Finland has been an active participant in the Afghanistan and Kosovo wars.

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Finland has one of the world's most extensive welfare systems, one that guarantees decent living conditions for all residents: Finns, and non-citizens.

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Finland's history has been harsher than the histories of the other Nordic countries, but not harsh enough to bar the country from following its path of social development.

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Finland has been ranked above average among the world's countries in democracy, press freedom, and human development.

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Economy of Finland has a per capita output equal to that of other European economies such as those of France, Germany, Belgium, or the UK.

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Finland is ranked as the 7th most innovative country in the Global Innovation Index in 2021.

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Finland has significant timber, mineral, and freshwater resources.

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However, because the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Drift Current moderate the climate, Finland contains half of the world's arable land north of 60° north latitude.

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Finland's agriculture has been efficient and productive—at least when compared with farming in other European countries.

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In 2013, the 10 largest private sector employers in Finland were Itella, Nokia, OP-Pohjola, ISS, VR, Kesko, UPM-Kymmene, YIT, Metso, and Nordea.

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Finland has the highest concentration of cooperatives relative to its population.

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Finland is a member of the International Energy Agency and, as such, maintains a strategic petroleum reserve in the case of emergencies.

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Vuosaari Harbour in Helsinki is the largest container port in Finland; others include Kotka, Hamina, Hanko, Pori, Rauma, and Oulu.

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In 2020, Finland was ranked 20th on the ease of doing business index, among 190 jurisdictions.

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Finland is ranked 16th in the 2008 global Index of Economic Freedom and ninth in Europe.

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In both indicators, Finland's performance was next to Germany, and significantly higher than most European countries.

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Finland is rated the least corrupt country in the world in the Corruption Perceptions Index and 13th in the Ease of doing business index.

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Tourist attractions in Finland include the natural landscape found throughout the country as well as urban attractions.

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Finland is covered with thick pine forests, rolling hills, and lakes.

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Finland contains 40 national parks, from the Southern shores of the Gulf of Finland to the high fells of Lapland.

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Finland has urbanized regions with many cultural events and activities.

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Finland has one of the oldest populations in the world, with a median age of 42.

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Finland has an average population density of 18 inhabitants per square kilometre.

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Finland's population has always been concentrated in the southern parts of the country, a phenomenon that became even more pronounced during 20th-century urbanization.

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Two of the three largest cities in Finland are situated in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area—Helsinki and Espoo, and some municipalities in the metropolitan area have shown clear growth of population year after year, the most notable being Jarvenpaa, Nurmijarvi, Kirkkonummi, Kerava and Sipoo.

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The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland has seen its share of the country's population declining by roughly one percent annually in recent years.

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In 1869, Finland was the first Nordic country to disestablish its Evangelical Lutheran church by introducing the Church Act, followed by the Church of Sweden in 2000.

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Since 2012, Finland has every time ranked at least in the top 5 of world's happiest countries in the annual World Happiness Report by the United Nations, as well as ranking as the happiest country in 2018.

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Finland has a long tradition of adult education, and by the 1980s nearly one million Finns were receiving some kind of instruction each year.

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In 2005, Finland had the fourth most scientific publications per capita of the OECD countries.

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Sauna is a type of dry steam bath practiced widely in Finland, which is especially evident in the strong tradition around Midsummer and Christmas.

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Visual arts in Finland started to form their characteristics in the 19th century when Romantic nationalism was rising in autonomic Finland.

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Architect Alvar Aalto is regarded as among the most important 20th-century designers in the world; he helped bring functionalist architecture to Finland, but soon was a pioneer in its development towards an organic style.

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Finland soon received a grant to study runo singers in Karelia and continued his rise as the first prominent Finnish musician.

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Finland remains one of Finland's most popular national figures and is a symbol of the nation.

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Around 1964, Beatlemania arrived in Finland, resulting in further development of the local rock scene.

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In regards to telecommunication infrastructure, Finland is the highest ranked country in the World Economic Forum's Network Readiness Index – an indicator for determining the development level of a country's information and communication technologies.

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Finland ranked first overall in the 2014 NRI ranking, unchanged from the year before.

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The most popular fish food in Finland is salmon, and the country is globally well known for its salmon soup .

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Finland has the world's second highest per capita consumption of coffee.

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At the 2022 Winter Olympics, Finland won the gold medal the first time, going undefeated and beating Russia in the final.

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Finland first participated as a nation in its own right at the Olympic Games in 1908, while still an autonomous Grand Duchy within the Russian Empire.

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Finland was one of the most successful countries at the Olympic Games before World War II.

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Finnish skaters have won 8 world championships and 13 junior world cups in synchronized skating, and Finland is considered one of the best countries in the sport.

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