28 Facts About USSR


The USSR was a federative entity of many constituent republics, each with its own political and administrative entities.

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In 1933, diplomatic relations between the United States and the USSR were established when in November, the newly elected President of the United States, Franklin D Roosevelt, chose to recognize Stalin's Communist government formally and negotiated a new trade agreement between the two countries.

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However, in April 1941, the USSR signed the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact with Japan, recognizing the territorial integrity of Manchukuo, a Japanese puppet state.

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USSR suffered greatly in the war, losing around 27 million people.

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Once denied diplomatic recognition by the Western world, the USSR had official relations with practically every country by the late 1940s.

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The USSR bound its satellite states in a military alliance, the Warsaw Pact, in 1955, and an economic organization, Council for Mutual Economic Assistance or Comecon, a counterpart to the European Economic Community, from 1949 to 1991.

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The USSR concentrated on its own recovery, seizing and transferring most of Germany's industrial plants, and it exacted war reparations from East Germany, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria using Soviet-dominated joint enterprises.

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USSR made significant changes in the economy and party leadership, called perestroika.

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In 1988, the USSR abandoned its war in Afghanistan and began to withdraw its forces.

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Referendum for the preservation of the USSR was held on 17 March 1991 in nine republics, with the majority of the population in those republics voting for preservation of the Union.

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USSR turned the powers that had been vested in the presidency over to Yeltsin.

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Ukraine has refused to recognize exclusive Russian claims to succession of the USSR and claimed such status for Ukraine as well, which was codified in Articles 7 and 8 of its 1991 law On Legal Succession of Ukraine.

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Two other co-founding states of the USSR at the time of the dissolution, Ukraine was the only one that had passed laws, similar to Russia, that it is a state-successor of both the Ukrainian SSR and the USSR.

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In 1939, half a year after the Munich Agreement, the USSR attempted to form an anti-Nazi alliance with France and Britain.

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Constitutionally, the USSR was a federation of constituent Union Republics, which were either unitary states, such as Ukraine or Byelorussia, or federations, such as Russia or Transcaucasia, all four being the founding republics who signed the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR in December 1922.

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USSR'storian Matthew White wrote that it was an open secret that the country's federal structure was "window dressing" for Russian dominance.

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On 12 April 1961, the USSR launched Vostok 1, which carried Yuri Gagarin, making him the first human to ever be launched into space and complete a space journey.

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However, the influence of the world economy on the USSR was limited by fixed domestic prices and a state monopoly on foreign trade.

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USSR's policies relaxed state control over enterprises but did not replace it by market incentives, resulting in a sharp decline in output.

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USSR's theory did not come to fruition because of the USSR's collapse.

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In contrast, the USSR was offensively and defensively maneuvering in the acquisition and use of the worldwide technology, to increase the competitive advantage that they acquired from the technology while preventing the US from acquiring a competitive advantage.

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Late 1960s and the 1970s witnessed a reversal of the declining trajectory of the rate of mortality in the USSR, and was especially notable among men of working age, but was prevalent in Russia and other predominantly Slavic areas of the country.

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The USSR implemented a broad range of policies over a long period of time, with a large amount of conflicting policies being implemented by different leaders.

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The opinions on the USSR are complex and have changed over time, with different generations having different views on the matter as well as on Soviet policies corresponding to separate time periods during its history.

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Many Russians and other former Soviet citizens have nostalgia for the USSR, pointing towards most infrastructure being built during Soviet times, increased job security, increased literacy rate, increased caloric intake and supposed ethnic pluralism enacted in the Soviet Union as well as political stability.

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Much of the admiration of the USSR comes from the failings of the modern post-Soviet governments such as the control by oligarchs, corruption and outdated Soviet-era infrastructure as well as the rise and dominance of organised crime after the dissolution of the Soviet Union all directly leading into nostalgia for it.

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Council communists generally view the USSR as failing to create class consciousness, turning into a corrupt state in which the elite controlled society.

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Maoists have a mixed opinion on the USSR, viewing it negatively during the Sino-Soviet Split and denouncing it as revisionist and reverted to capitalism.

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