37 Facts About Fatimid Caliphate


Fatimid Caliphate was an Ismaili Shia caliphate extant from the tenth to the twelfth centuries AD.

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Between 902 to 909 the foundation of the Fatimid state was realized by the Kutama Berbers, under the leadership of the da'i Abu Abdallah, whose conquest of Ifriqiya paved the way for the establishment of the Caliphate.

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Fatimid Caliphate dynasty claimed descent from Fatimah, the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Fatimid Caliphate dynasty came to power as the leaders of Isma'ilism, a revolutionary Shi'a movement "which was at the same time political and religious, philosophical and social", and which originally proclaimed nothing less than the arrival of an Islamic messiah.

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Fatimid Caliphate established an Isma'ili theocratic state based in Tazrut, operating in a way similar to previous Isma'ili missionary networks in Mesopotamia but adapted to local Kutama tribal structures.

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Fatimid Caliphate adopted the role of a traditional Islamic ruler at the head of this organization while remaining in frequent contact with Ubayd Allah.

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Fatimid Caliphate continued to preach to his followers, known as the Awliya' Allah, and to initiate them into Isma'ili doctrine.

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Ziyadat Allah III stepped up anti-Fatimid Caliphate propaganda, recruited volunteers, and took measures to defend the weakly-fortified city of Kairouan.

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Fatimid Caliphate established a new, Isma'ili Shi'a regime on behalf of his absent, and for the moment unnamed, master.

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Fatimid Caliphate was accompanied by Ziri ibn Manad, the leader of the Zirids.

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The Fatimid Caliphate focus on agriculture further increased their riches and allowed the dynasty and the Egyptians to flourish.

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Fatimid Caliphate aimed to eventually capture Jerusalem, but he died in 976 on his way back to Constantinople, thus staving off the Byzantine threat to the Fatimids.

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Fatimid Caliphate allied with the Qarmatis and with Arab Bedouin tribes in Syria and invaded Palestine in the spring of 977.

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Fatimid Caliphate took Homs and Hama in 992 and defeated a combined force from Hamdanid Aleppo and Byzantine-held Antioch.

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Fatimid Caliphate opened the Dar al-'Ilm, a library for the study of the sciences, which was in line with al-'Aziz's previous policy of cultivating this knowledge.

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Fatimid Caliphate ordered or sanctioned the destruction of a number of churches and monasteries, which was unprecedented, and in 1009, for reasons that remain unclear, he ordered the demolition of the Church of the Holy Sephulchre in Jerusalem.

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Fatimid Caliphate was purportedly murdered, but his body was never found.

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Fatimid Caliphate's served as his regent until her death in 1023, at which point an alliance of courtiers and officials ruled, with al-Jarjara'i, a former finance official, at their head.

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Fatimid Caliphate was 7 years old when he came to the throne and thus al-Jarjara'i continued to serve as vizier and his guardian.

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Fatimid Caliphate returned to San'a where he established his family as rulers on behalf of the Fatimid caliphs.

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Fatimid Caliphate's brother founded the city of Ta'izz, while the city of Aden became an important hub of trade between Egypt and India, which brought Egypt further wealth.

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In 1062, the tentative balance between the different ethnic groups within the Fatimid Caliphate army collapsed and they quarreled constantly or fought each other in the streets.

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Fatimid Caliphate commanded a large contingent of Armenian troops, many of whom were Christian.

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Fatimid Caliphate attempted to secure the succession of his son to the vizierate as well, but this ultimately failed.

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Fatimid Caliphate managed to carry out various administrative reforms and infrastructural projects during in the later years of al-Afdal's term, including the construction of an astronomical observatory in 1119.

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Fatimid Caliphate accepted a pardon from the caliph and remained at the palace.

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The internal disorder of the Caliphate attracted the attention and meddling of the Sunni Zengid ruler Nur ad-Din, who was now in control of Damascus and a large part of Syria, and of the King of Jerusalem, Amalric I The Crusaders had already forced Tala'i ibn Ruzzik to pay them a tribute in 1161 and had made an attempt to invade Egypt in 1162.

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Fatimid Caliphate caliphs were buried in a mausoleum known as Turbat az-Za'faraan, located at the southern end of the eastern Fatimid Caliphate palace in Cairo on the site now occupied by the Khan el-Khalili market.

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Scholars generally agree that, on the whole, Fatimid Caliphate rule was highly tolerant and inclusive towards different religious communities.

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The Fatimid Caliphate state promoted Isma'ili doctrine through a hierarchical organization.

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Cognizant of this, the Fatimid Caliphate authorities introduced Shi'a changes to religious rituals only gradually after Jawhar's conquest.

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Fundamental change occurred when the Fatimid Caliphate attempted to push into Syria in the latter half of the tenth century.

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The Fatimids were faced with the now Turkish-dominated forces of the Abbasid Caliphate and began to realize the limits of their current military.

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The Fatimid Caliphate period is important in the history of Islamic art and architecture as it is one of the earliest Islamic dynasties for which enough materials survive for a detailed study of their evolution.

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The stylistic diversity of Fatimid Caliphate art was a reflection of the wider cultural environment of the Mediterranean world at this time.

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Many traces of Fatimid Caliphate architecture exist in both Egypt and present-day Tunisia, particularly in the former capitals of Mahdia and Cairo (al-Qahira).

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Fatimid Caliphate dynasty continued and flourished under Al-Musta'li until Al-Amir bi-Ahkami'l-Lah's death in 1130.

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