26 Facts About Hindi language


Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari:, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in the Hindi Belt region encompassing parts of northern, central, eastern, and western India.

FactSnippet No. 521,386

Outside India, several other languages are recognised officially as "Hindi" but do not refer to the Standard Hindi language described here and instead descend from other dialects, such as Awadhi and Bhojpuri.

FactSnippet No. 521,387

Apart from the script and formal vocabulary, standard Hindi language is mutually intelligible with standard Urdu, another recognised register of Hindustani as both share a common colloquial base.

FactSnippet No. 521,388

Term Hindi language originally was used to refer to inhabitants of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

FactSnippet No. 521,389

Early Hindi language literature came about in the 12th and 13th centuries CE.

FactSnippet No. 521,390

John Gilchrist was principally known for his study of the Hindustani Hindi language, which was adopted as the lingua franca of northern India by British colonists and indigenous people.

FactSnippet No. 521,391

Hindi language is known for his role in the foundation of University College London and for endowing the Gilchrist Educational Trust.

FactSnippet No. 521,392

On 14 September 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India adopted Hindi written in the Devanagari script as the official language of the Republic of India replacing Urdu's previous usage in British India.

FactSnippet No. 521,393

Article 344 stipulates that the official language commission shall be constituted every ten years to recommend steps for progressive use of Hindi language and imposing restrictions on the use of the English language by the union government.

FactSnippet No. 521,394

At the state level, Hindi is the official language of the following Indian states: Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Mizoram, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

FactSnippet No. 521,395

Similarly, Hindi is accorded the status of official language in the following Union Territories: Delhi, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.

FactSnippet No. 521,396

In 2010, the Gujarat High Court clarified that Hindi is not the national language of India because the constitution does not mention it as such.

FactSnippet No. 521,397

In 2021, in a Narcotics Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act case involving Gangam Sudhir Kumar Reddy, the Bombay High Court claimed Hindi is the national language while refusing Reddy bail, after he argued against his statutory rights being read in Hindi, despite being a native Telugu speaker.

FactSnippet No. 521,398

In Northeast India a pidgin known as Haflong Hindi has developed as a lingua franca for the people living in Haflong, Assam who speak other languages natively.

FactSnippet No. 521,399

Hindi language is spoken by a large population of Madheshis of Nepal.

FactSnippet No. 521,400

Apart from this, Hindi language is spoken by the large Indian diaspora which hails from, or has its origin from the "Hindi language Belt" of India.

FactSnippet No. 521,401

However, Hindi language is written in the Devanagari script and contains more Sanskrit-derived words than Urdu, whereas Urdu is written in the Perso-Arabic script and uses more Arabic and Persian loanwords compared to Hindi language.

FactSnippet No. 521,402

Unlike Sanskrit, Devanagari is not entirely phonetic for Hindi language, especially failing to mark schwa deletion in spoken Standard Hindi language.

FactSnippet No. 521,403

Traditionally, Hindi language words are divided into five principal categories according to their etymology:.

FactSnippet No. 521,404

Hindi language makes extensive use of loan translation and occasionally phono-semantic matching of English.

FactSnippet No. 521,405

Hindi language has naturally inherited a large portion of its vocabulary from Sauraseni Prakrt, in the form of tadbhava words.

FactSnippet No. 521,406

Much of Modern Standard Hindi language's vocabulary is borrowed from Sanskrit as tatsam borrowings, especially in technical and academic fields.

FactSnippet No. 521,407

Hindi language literature is broadly divided into four prominent forms or styles, being Bhakti; Srngar (beauty – Keshav, Bihari); Vigatha (epic); and Adhunik (modern).

FactSnippet No. 521,408

Medieval Hindi language literature is marked by the influence of Bhakti movement and the composition of long, epic poems.

FactSnippet No. 521,409

Literary, or Sahityik, Hindi language was popularised by the writings of Swami Dayananda Saraswati, Bhartendu Harishchandra and others.

FactSnippet No. 521,410

Uttar Adhunik is the post-modernist period of Hindi literature, marked by a questioning of early trends that copied the West as well as the excessive ornamentation of the Chayavadi movement, and by a return to simple language and natural themes.

FactSnippet No. 521,411