38 Facts About Mongolia


Mongolia is the world's largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea, and much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south.

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Territory of modern-day Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the First Turkic Khaganate, and others.

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Mongolia is a member of the United Nations, Asia Cooperation Dialogue, G77, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, Non-Aligned Movement and a NATO global partner.

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Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade groups.

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Since prehistoric times, Mongolia has been inhabited by nomads who, from time to time, formed great confederations that rose to power and prominence.

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Mongolia came into conflicts with the Manchus over the looting of Chinese cities, and alienated most Mongol tribes.

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The Stalinist purges in Mongolia, which began in 1937, killed more than 30, 000 people.

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Mongolia fought against Japan during the Battles of Khalkhin Gol in 1939 and during the Soviet–Japanese War in August 1945 to liberate Inner Mongolia from Japan and Mengjiang.

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The westernmost part of Mongolia is on roughly the same longitude as Kolkata in India, while the easternmost part is on the same longitude as Qinhuangdao and Hangzhou in China, as well as the western edge of Taiwan.

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Geography of Mongolia is varied, with the Gobi Desert to the south and cold, mountainous regions to the north and west.

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Mongolia is known as the "Land of the Eternal Blue Sky" or "Country of Blue Sky" because it has over 250 sunny days a year.

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In winter the whole of Mongolia comes under the influence of the Siberian Anticyclone.

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The eastern part of Mongolia including the Onon and Kherlen rivers and Lake Buir form part of the Amur river basin draining to the Pacific Ocean.

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Mongolia had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 9.

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Russian is the most frequently spoken foreign language in Mongolia, followed by English, although English has been gradually replacing Russian as the second language.

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Mongolia is a semi-presidential representative democratic republic with a directly elected President.

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Mongolia represents a younger generation of leaders that had studied abroad.

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President of Mongolia is able to veto the laws made by parliament, appoint judges and justice of courts and appoint ambassadors.

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Mongolia uses a unicameral legislature, the State Great Khural, with 76 seats, which is chaired by the Speaker of the House.

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Mongolia has been pursuing a third-neighbor foreign policy since early 1990s to build deeper relations and partnerships with countries beyond its two neighbors.

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Mongolia maintains many diplomatic missions in other countries and has embassies in the following world capitals:.

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Mongolia supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and has sent several successive contingents of 103 to 180 troops each to Iraq.

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Judiciary of Mongolia is made of a three-tiered court system: first instance courts in each provincial district and each Ulaanbaatar district; appellate courts for each province and the Capital Ulaanbaatar; and the court of last resort at the Supreme Court of Mongolia.

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Mongolia is divided into 21 provinces and subdivided into 331 districts (sums).

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Economic activity in Mongolia has long been based on herding and agriculture, although development of extensive mineral deposits of copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten and gold have emerged as a driver of industrial production.

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Mongolia is ranked as lower-middle-income economy by the World Bank.

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Mongolia made a significant improvement in the ease of doing business in 2012, ranking 76th compared with 88th the previous year in the "Doing Business" report by the International Finance Corporation.

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Mining continues to rise as a major industry of Mongolia as evidenced by the number of Chinese, Russian and Canadian firms starting mining businesses in Mongolia.

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In September 2022, Mongolia built and launched a 233-km direct rail link to China, which is a milestone in Mongolia's plan to become China's leading supplier of high-quality coal from the Tavan Tolgoi mine, which has more than six billion tonnes of coal reserves.

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Internet, Mongolia relies on fiber optic communications with its Chinese and Russian neighbors.

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Mongolia has a number of domestic airports, with some of them having international status.

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Many overland roads in Mongolia are only gravel roads or simple cross-country tracks.

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Mongolia was ranked 58th in the Global Innovation Index in 2021, down from 53rd in 2019.

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Poor air quality is the largest occupational hazard, as over two-thirds of occupational disease in Mongolia is dust induced chronic bronchitis or pneumoconiosis.

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Music of Mongolia is strongly influenced by nature, nomadism, shamanism, and Tibetan Buddhism.

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The Communist government of Mongolia banned boxing from 1964 to 1967 but the government soon ended the ban.

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Bandy is the only sport in which Mongolia has finished higher than third place at the Asian Winter Games, which happened in 2011 when the national team captured the silver medal.

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Mongolia won the bronze medal of the B division at the 2017 Bandy World Championship after which the then President of Mongolia, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, held a reception for the team.

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