50 Facts About Ombudsman


Use of the term in its modern use began in Norway, and was followed by Sweden with the Swedish Parliamentary Ombudsman instituted by the Instrument of Government of 1809, to safeguard the rights of citizens by establishing a supervisory agency independent of the executive branch.

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The predecessor of the Swedish Parliamentary Ombudsman was the Office of Supreme Ombudsman, which was established by the Swedish King, Charles XII, in 1713.

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The Parliamentary Ombudsman was established in 1809 by the Swedish Riksdag, as a parallel institution to the still-present Chancellor of Justice, reflecting the concept of separation of powers as developed by Montesquieu.

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Parliamentary Ombudsman is the institution that the Scandinavian countries subsequently developed into its contemporary form, and which subsequently has been adopted in many other parts of the world.

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Current Ombudsman is Erinda Ballanca, elected on 22 May 2017, succeeding Igli Totozani, elected on 23 December 2011, and Dr Emir Dobjani who had served since February 2000.

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The Ombudsman can investigate complaints about the actions and decisions of Australian Government departments and agencies, the services delivered by most private contractors for the Australian Government, and oversee complaint investigations conducted by the Australian Federal Police.

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Three-member Ombudsman Board was created in 1977 as an independent authority monitoring Austria's entire public administration.

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Under the Ombudsman Act 1980, the Ombudsman of Barbados is appointed by the Governor-General with the approval of both houses of the legislature.

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Bahraini Ombudsman is an independent secretariat, financially and administratively, in the Ministry of the Interior of Bahrain established to ensure compliance with professional standards of policing set forth in the Code of Conduct for the Police, as well as in the administrative regulations governing the performance of civil servants.

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The Ombudsman assumes its authority and mission in full independence with respect to the complaints it receives against any civilian or public security personnel in the Ministry of the Interior of Bahrain for alleged criminal offense because of, during or as result of their scope of responsibilities.

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The Ombudsman investigates complaints about the administrative actions of Public Authorities, including Government Departments, Boards and Bodies established or funded by the Legislature.

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Commissioner for Administration, usually referred to as the Ombudsman, is an Independent Authority in Cyprus and was established on 15 March 1991.

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European Ombudsman was established by the Maastricht Treaty, the treaty establishing the European Union.

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The current European Ombudsman, holding office since 1 October 2013, is Emily O'Reilly, former national ombudsman of Ireland.

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The European Union Ombudsman investigates claims by individuals or companies which reside or have their interests within the European Union against incidents of bad administration by bodies or institutions of the European Union.

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In Finland the office of Parliamentary Ombudsman, modelled after the Swedish Ombudsman, was established by the Constitution of 1919.

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The Ombudsman is appointed by Parliament, and has the task of ensuring that all government departments and officials follow the law.

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The Ombudsman has wide-ranging oversight and investigative powers, has access to all government facilities, documents and information systems and can order a police investigation if necessary.

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Gibraltar Public Services Ombudsman is an independent authority whose functions are to investigate complaints received from the general public about acts of maladministration by the Government of Gibraltar and certain public bodies and contractors.

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The Office of the Ombudsman came into being in April 1999 with the appointment of Henry Pinna as Gibraltar's first Public Services Ombudsman.

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The Ombudsman aims to safeguard the rights of the citizens vis-a-vis the State and local authorities, and to promote equality and good administrative practice.

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The Ombudsman is appointed by the President of Ireland upon the nomination of both Houses of the Oireachtas, and is a civil servant of the State.

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The Ombudsman investigates complaints against bodies that are statutorily subject to audit by the State Comptroller, including government ministries, local authorities, state enterprises and institutions and government companies, as well as their employees.

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The Office of the Ombudsman is a constitutional body established by the Constitution of Malta and is regulated by the Ombudsman Act.

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In Malta, the Ombudsman is an Officer of Parliament and is appointed by the House of Representatives of Malta through a resolution supported by votes of not less than two-thirds of all members of the House.

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The recommendations issued by the Maltese Office of the Ombudsman are not binding legally but do have a persuasive value.

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Post of Ombudsman was established in New Zealand in 1962, to investigate complaints against government departments.

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The Ombudsman has responsibility to protect 'whistleblowers' and investigate the administration of prisons and other places of detention.

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The Ombudsman has headquarters in Islamabad and Regional Offices in Lahore, Sukkur, Quetta, Faisalabad, Multan, Dera Ismail Khan, Peshawar and Karachi, Abbottabad.

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On 17 November 1989 the Congress enacted Republic Act No 6770, otherwise known as the Ombudsman Act of 1989, providing for the functional and structural organization of the Office of the Ombudsman and delineating its powers functions and duties.

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Polish Ombudsman is called the, usually translated as the Commissioner for Protection of Civil Rights, or Commissioner for Human Rights.

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Ombudsman is elected by the National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia for a five-year-term and is accountable to the Assembly for his work.

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The Ombudsman enjoys the same immunity as a member of the parliament.

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Ombudsman has four deputies, who are specialized in several fields, especially the protection of rights of persons deprived of liberty, gender equality, children rights, minority rights and rights of people with disabilities.

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Ombudsman has competence to oversee the work of government agencies, the bodies authorized for legal protection of property rights and interests of the Republic of Serbia and other bodies and organizations, enterprises and institutions which have been delegated public authority.

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Ombudsman has no jurisdiction over the National Assembly, the President, the Government, the Constitutional Court, courts and Public Prosecutor's Office.

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Ombudsman can act preemptively, by offering advice and opinion on issues within his competence, to enhance the operation of the administration authorities and strengthen the protection of human liberties and rights.

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The Ombudsman is entitled to propose laws within its scope of competence, give opinions to the Government and the National Assembly on regulations under preparation and address the Constitutional Court to challenge the constitutionality of laws.

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Ombudsman provides the National Assembly with an annual report on his work and findings as well as with other special reports.

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The Human Rights Ombudsman is defined in Article 159 of the Constitution, which provides that in order to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms in relation to state authorities, local self-government authorities and bearers of public authority, the office of the Ombudsman for the rights of citizens shall be established by law.

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Human Rights Ombudsman of the Republic of Slovenia is a constitutional category that does not fall under the executive, judicial or legislative branch of authority.

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The Ombudsman is therefore not part of any mechanism of authority, but rather acts as an overseer of authority since as an institution it restricts its capricious encroachment of human rights and fundamental freedoms.

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Ombudsman cannot perform work or remove violations or irregularities in place of the specific state body, local community body or holder of public authorisation.

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Parliamentary Ombudsman was in turn appointed to represent the parliament; to oversee that all public authorities comply with the laws and decrees.

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The current Ombudsman is Zarif Alizoda, appointed by President Emomalii Rahmon and approved by Parliament in May 2009.

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In January 2020, the Office of the Ombudsman abolished its 2012 and 2014 travel regulations, which covered only the ombudsmen's expenses during domestic and overseas trips, and replaced them with a new version that allows ombudsmen's spouses to claim identical benefits on overseas trips.

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In 2019, the Office of the Ombudsman investigated 4, 762 cases, of which 2, 530 were "dealt with".

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Ombudsman's Office was created after the constitutional referendum of 2010 was approved.

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The Ombudsman's Office is responsible for examining and investigating all manner of administrative acts, actions, attitudes and behavior in terms of respect for human rights and freedoms, conformity with the law and fairness and appropriateness within the framework of the character of the Republic of Turkey as enshrined in its Constitution.

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The Ombudsman's Office is called the Public Monitoring Institution and has an independent and autonomous budget.

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